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Modeling the Random Orientation of Mobile Devices: Measurement, Analysis and LiFi Use Case

Light-fidelity (LiFi) is a networked optical wireless communication (OWC) solution for high-speed indoor connectivity for fixed and mobile optical communications. Unlike conventional radio frequency wireless systems, the OWC channel is not isotropic meaning that the device orientation affects the channel gain significantly particularly for mobile users. However, due to the lack of a proper model for device orientation, many studies have assumed that the receiver is vertically upward and fixed. In this paper, a novel model for device orientation based on experimental measurements of forty participants has been proposed. It is shown that the probability density function (PDF) of the polar angle can be modeled either based on Laplace (for static users) or Gaussian (for mobile users) distribution. In addition, a closed-form expression is obtained for the PDF of the cosine of the incidence angle based on which the line-of-sight (LOS) channel gain is described in OWC channels. An approximation of this PDF based on the truncated Laplace is proposed and the accuracy of this approximation is confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (KSD). Moreover, the statistics of the LOS channel gain are calculated and the random orientation of a UE is modeled as slow fading. The influence of the random orientation on signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) performance of OWC systems has been evaluated. Finally, an orientation-based random waypoint (ORWP) mobility model is proposed by considering the random orientation of the UE during the user's movement. The performance of ORWP is assessed on the handover rate and it is shown that it is important to take the random orientation into account.


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