Modeling Complex Spatial Patterns with Temporal Features via Heterogenous Graph Embedding Networks

by   Yida Huang, et al.

Multivariate time series (MTS) forecasting is an important problem in many fields. Accurate forecasting results can effectively help decision-making. Variables in MTS have rich relations among each other and the value of each variable in MTS depends both on its historical values and on other variables. These rich relations can be static and predictable or dynamic and latent. Existing methods do not incorporate these rich relational information into modeling or only model certain relation among MTS variables. To jointly model rich relations among variables and temporal dependencies within the time series, a novel end-to-end deep learning model, termed Multivariate Time Series Forecasting via Heterogenous Graph Neural Networks (MTHetGNN) is proposed in this paper. To characterize rich relations among variables, a relation embedding module is introduced in our model, where each variable is regarded as a graph node and each type of edge represents a specific relationship among variables or one specific dynamic update strategy to model the latent dependency among variables. In addition, convolutional neural network (CNN) filters with different perception scales are used for time series feature extraction, which is used to generate the feature of each node. Finally, heterogenous graph neural networks are adopted to handle the complex structural information generated by temporal embedding module and relation embedding module. Three benchmark datasets from the real world are used to evaluate the proposed MTHetGNN and the comprehensive experiments show that MTHetGNN achieves state-of-the-art results in MTS forecasting task.


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