Model Checking Strategic Abilities in Information-sharing Systems

04/19/2022
by   Francesco Belardinelli, et al.
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We introduce a subclass of concurrent game structures (CGS) with imperfect information in which agents are endowed with private data-sharing capabilities. Importantly, our CGSs are such that it is still decidable to model-check these CGSs against a relevant fragment of ATL. These systems can be thought as a generalisation of architectures allowing information forks, in the sense that, in the initial states of the system, we allow information forks from agents outside a given set A to agents inside this A. For this reason, together with the fact that the communication in our models underpins a specialised form of broadcast, we call our formalism A-cast systems. To underline, the fragment of ATL for which we show the model-checking problem to be decidable over A-cast is a large and significant one; it expresses coalitions over agents in any subset of the set A. Indeed, as we show, our systems and this ATL fragments can encode security problems that are notoriously hard to express faithfully: terrorist-fraud attacks in identity schemes.

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1 Introduction

The Increasing Importance of Private-Information Sharing & Collusion-encoding.

Sharing information over private channels is a key issue in many ICT applications, from robotics to information systems [44]. Safeguarding privacy is also of utmost concern, also in the context of EU’s newly-enforced General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [1]. So, being able to explicitly model data-sharing over private channels in multi-agent systems (MAS) or concurrent systems is crucial.

On the other hand, there are numerous ICT applications, such as identity-schemes and distributed ledgers, where the threat of adversaries colluding privately with inside accomplices is greater than that of classical, outsider-type attackers. That said, verifying security against collusions-based attacks such as terrorist-frauds [10] in identification schemes is a notoriously difficult problem in security verification [17]. And, even the most recent formalisms attempting this [19] fall short of encapsulating the strategic nature of this property or of the threat-model it views; instead, [19] looks at correspondence of events in applied -calculus (i.e., if agents did a series of actions with one result, then later another fact must be the case). Instead, they use arguably crude approximations (based on causalities/correspondence of events in process calculi [15]) of what a collusive attack would be. But, indeed, such attacks resting on not one by two interdependent strategies are notoriously hard to model [17]. Meanwhile, expressive logics for strategic reasoning have been shown effective in capturing intricate security requirements, such as coercion-resistance in e-voting [45, 4, 36]. Thus, the further study of strategic abilities under collusion is of timely interest.

Looking into this, we observe that the typical formalisms for encoding multi-agent systems (MAS), such as interpreted systems [24], support the analysis of strategy-oriented properties. Yet, these systems are generally inspired by concurrent action models and, so, explicit expression therein of data-sharing between agents is difficult to model naturally. Other frameworks, such as dynamic epistemic logic (DEL) [22, 39] or propositional assignments [34], provide agents with more flexibility on data sharing, but do not allow for the full power of strategic reasoning. To fill this gap, the formalism of vCGS was recently proposed in [7]. vCGS supports the explicit expression of private-data sharing in MAS. That is, a vCGS encodes syntactically and in a natural semantics a “MAS with 1-to-1 private-channels”: agent and agent have an explicit syntactic/semantic endowment to “see” some of each others’ variables, without other agents partaking in this. However, unfortunately, verifying strategy-based logic specification on vCGS has been shown undecidable. So, it would interesting and timely, to see if we can maintain the needed feature of private-information sharing that vCGS have and recover the decidability of model checking logics that express strategic abilities.

To sum up, in this paper, we look at tractable verification of logics of strategic-abilities in systems capable of expressing private data-sharing between processes; we show an important decidability result in this space. We do this with the view of applying this to ICT systems where the analysis of strategic behaviour is crucial: e.g., collusion-based attacks in security settings.

2 Context & Contribution

Context on Alternating-Time Temporal Logic. Alternating-time temporal logic (ATL) [2] is a powerful extension of branching-time logics which indeed provides a framework for reasoning about strategic behaviours in concurrent and multi-agent systems. From the very beginning, ATL was proposed also for agents with imperfect information. In ATL semantics, agents can have memoryless strategies or recall-based/memoryful strategies; in the latter, they “remember” all their history of moves, whereas in the former – they recall none. Also, ATL with imperfect information comes with several semantic flavours [35] (subjective, objective or common-knowledge interpretation), created by different views on the intricate relationships between its temporal and epistemic aspects.

Context on ATL Decidability. There have been several proposals for decidable fragments of ATL with imperfect information, which arose via two alternative avenues: (a) by imposing a memoryless semantics for the ATL operators [38], approach implemented in the MCMAS tool; (b) by making structural restrictions on the indistinguishability relations inside the game structures, so that one looks at ATL just with distributed knowledge [20], or ATL with hierarchical knowledge [11] or ATL over broadcasting systems [6, 9]. Some other decidable fragments can be further obtained by adapting decidable cases of the distributed-synthesis problem, or the the existence of winning strategies in multi-agent games with imperfect information. We therefore may generalise the decidability of the distributed-synthesis problem in architectures without information forks [25], or utilise the decidability of the problem of the existence of a winning strategy in multi-player games with finite knowledge gaps [14].

Contribution

I. Our Private Data-Sharing Systems. In this paper, we propose a new class of game structures is called -cast game structures, where is a set of processes/agents. In -cast game structures, when some outsider (agent not in ) sends some information to some agent in , the same information is seen to all agents in the coalition .

-cast game structures are introduced using the formalism called vCGS recently proposed111vCGS can be seen as a generalisation of Reactive Modules Games with imperfect information [29], in that each agent may dynamically modify the visibility of the atoms she “owns”, by either disclosing or hiding the value of that atom to some other agent. in [7]. We can introduce -cast systems directly as game structures, yet we chose to use vCGS simply as it allows for an elegant formalisation of the information-flow between outsiders to the coalition . So, as a consequence of this presentation choice, -cast game structures can be seen as a specialisation of the vCGS in [7].

-cast game structures are in fact a strict generalisation of both architectures without information forks [25] and broadcast systems [42]. On the one hand, the extension of [25] comes from the fact that, in -cast game structures, the set of initial states is arbitrary, as well as the epistemic relations defining the information available to agents in initial states. On the other, modelling these features using the setting of distributed architectures in [25], where a single initial state is imposed, requires the Environment agent to send the initial information to each agent by some private channel, hence creates an information fork.

II. Our Decidable Fragment of ATL. We now describe the class of formulas for which the model-checking problem is decidable on our -cast game structures, as well as some details linked to this. This ATL fragment is composed of formulas which utilise only coalition operators involving a set of agents , where is the set of agents/processes describing the -cast system.

To obtain this result, the key point is that two action-histories starting in the same initial state, both being generated by the same joint strategy for coalition and being in the same common-knowledge indistinguishability class for are in fact in the same distributed-knowledge indistinguishability class for . This property allows for the design of a finitary information-set construction for the appropriate multi-player game with imperfect information [13], needed to decide each coalition operator.

III. Our Case Study and Its Need of Verification against Formulae with Nested-ATL Modalities. We provide a case study which shows the relevance of our new decidable class of ATL model-checking. This case study lives in the cyber-security domain: the identity-schemes and threats of collusion-based attacks therein (i.e., terrorist-fraud attack). Concretely, we model the distance-bounding (DB) protocol by Hancke and Kuhn [31] as an -cast vCGS, and the existence of a terrorist-fraud attack on this protocol as an formula involving a non-singleton coalition operator. In fact, we also note that the formula which specifies the existence of a terrorist-fraud attack in our case study is the first type of formula requiring nesting of operators.

Hence, the model-checking algorithm proposed in this paper can be applied to this case study, while other existing decidable model-checking or distributed-synthesis frameworks can treat it (due to the formula it requires). The only exception would be the utilisation of a memoryless semantics of [38], which would be applicable since our case study is in fact a model in which there exists a finite number of lasso-type infinite runs. Yet, specifying our case-study in a formalism like that of [38] would require an explicit encoding/“massaging” of the agent memory into the model. In other words, our algorithm synthesises memoryful strategies and hence allows working with a given model without explicit encoding of agent memory into the model.

Structure. In Section 3, we present general preliminaries on Alternating-time Temporal Logic () and concurrent game structures with imperfect information (iCGS) [2]. In Section 4, we recall MAS with private-channels, called vCGS [7]. On vCGS, we provide ATL with our main formalism called -cast systems, that is a semantics under the assumptions of imperfect information and perfect recall, under subjective interpretation [35]. In Section 5, we present the main decidability result of model checking ATL on top of -cast systems. In Section 6, we show how use the logic and result here to check he existence of collusion-based attacks in secure systems. Section 7 discusses related work and future research.

3 Background on Alternating-time Temporal Logic

We here recall background notions on concurrent game structures with imperfect information (iCGS) and Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL) [2]. We denote the length of a tuple as , and its th element either as or . For , let or be the suffix of starting at and let or be the prefix of ending at . Further, we denote with the last element of . Hereafter, we assume a finite set of agents and an infinite set of atomic propositions (atoms).

Definition 1 (iCGS)

Given sets of agents and of atoms, a CGS with imperfect information is a tuple where:

  • is the set of states, with the set of initial states.

  • For every agent , is the set of actions for . Let be the set of all actions, and the set of all joint actions.

  • For every agent , the indistinguishability relation is an equivalence relation on .

  • For every and , the protocol function returns the non-empty set of actions enabled at for s.t.  implies .

  • is the (partial) transition function s.t.  is defined iff for every .

  • is the labelling function.

An iCGS describes the interactions of set of agents. Every agent has imperfect information about the global state of the iCGS, as in every state she considers any state as (epistemically) possible [24, 35].

To reason about the strategic abilities of agents in iCGS, we adopt the Alternating-time Temporal Logic .

Definition 2

Formulas in are defined as follows, for and .

The strategy operator is read as “coalition can achieve …”.

The subjective interpretation of with imperfect information and perfect recall [35] is defined on iCGS as follows. Given an iCGS M, a path is a (finite or infinite) sequence of states such that for every there exists some joint action such that . A finite, non-empty path is called a history. Hereafter, we extend the indistinguishability relation to histories: iff and for every , .

Definition 3 (Strategy)

A uniform, memoryful strategy for agent is a function such that for all histories , (i) ; and (ii) if then .

Given a joint strategy for coalition , and history , let be the set of all infinite paths whose initial segment is indistinguishable from and consistent with , that is, .

We now assign a meaning to formulas on iCGS.

Definition 4 (Satisfaction)

The satisfaction relation for an iCGS M, path , index , and formula is defined as follows (clauses for Boolean operators are immediate and thus omitted):

iff
iff for some strategy , for all ,
iff for some strategy , for some ,
s.t.  and ,
iff for some strategy , for all paths ,
, or s.t. 

Operators , ‘eventually’ , and ‘globally’ can be introduced as usual.

A formula is true at state , or , iff for all paths starting in , . A formula is true in an iCGS M, or , iff for all initial states , .

Our choice for the subjective interpretation of ATL is motivated by the fact that it allows us to talk about the strategic abilities of agents as depending on their knowledge, which is essential in the analysis of security protocols. We illustrate this point in Section 6.

Hereafter we tackle the following major decision problem.

Definition 5 (Model checking problem)

Given a iCGS M and an formula , the model checking problem amounts to determine whether .

4 Agents with Visibility-Control

We now provide details on a notion of agent presented in [7]. Such an agents can change the truth-value of the atoms she controls, and make atoms visible to other agents.

Definition 6 (Visibility Atom)

Given atom and agent , denotes a visibility atom expressing intuitively that the truth value of is visible to . By we denote the set of all visibility atoms , for and . By = we denote the set of visibility atoms for agent .

Importantly, the notion of visibility in Def. 6 is dynamic, rather than static, as it can change at run time. That is, agent , can make atom visible (resp. invisible) to agent by setting the truth value of atom to true (resp., false). This intuition motivates the following definition.

Definition 7 (Visibility-Controlling Agent: Syntax)

Given set of atoms, an agent is a tuple such that

  • is the set of atoms controlled by agent ;

  • is a finite set of update commands of the form:

    where each is an atom controlled by that occurs at most once, guard is a Boolean formula over , all are agents in different from , and is a truth value in .

We denote with and the guard (here, ) and assignment of , respectively.

The intuitive reading of a guarded command is: if guard is true, then the agent executes assignment . By Def. 7 every agent controls the truth value of every atom . Moreover, differently from [3, 32], she can switch the visibility for some other agent over her own atoms, by means of assignments . Lastly, by requiring that all are different from , we guarantee that agent cannot loose visibility of her own atoms. Hereafter, we assume that control is exclusive: for any two distinct agents and , , i.e., the sets of controlled atoms are disjoint. Then, we often talk about the owner of an atom .

The agents in Def. 7 can be thought of as a compact, program-like specifications of a multi-agent system. The actual transitions in the system are described by a specific class of concurrent game structures with imperfect information, that we call iCGS with visibility-control (vCGS). In particular, a state in a vCGS is a set of propositional and visibility atoms such that for every , , , that is, every agent can see the atoms she controls. Then, given state and , we define as the set of atoms visible to agent in . Notice that, by definition, for every state .

Definition 8 (Visibility-Controlling Agents: Semantics)

Given a set of agents as in Def. 7 over a set of atoms, and a set of initial states, an iCGS with visibility-control (vCGS) is an iCGS where:

  • and are the set of all states and the set of initial states, respectively;

  • For every agent , .

  • The indistinguishability relation is defined so that for every , iff and for every , iff .

  • For every and , the protocol function returns set of update-commands s.t.  and , where is the set of atoms occurring in . That is, all atoms appearing in the guard are visible to the agent and the guard is true. We can enforce for all and , by introducing a null command , with trivial guard and empty assignment. We can check that if then .

  • The transition function is s.t. holds iff:

    • For every , .

    • For every and , iff either contains an assignment or, and does not contain an assignment .

    • For every and , iff either contains an assignment or, and does not contain an assignment .

  • The labelling function is the identity function restricted to , that is, every state is labelled with the propositional atoms belonging to it.

Definitions 7 and 8 implicitly state that agents in a vCGS interact by means of strategies, defined, as for iCGS, as suitable functions . This means that the set of guarded commands in an agent specification describe all possible interactions, from which agents choose a particular one. The chosen command can be seen as a refinement of the corresponding guarded command, in the form of a (possibly infinite) set of guarded commands where each is obtained from the unique command by appending to the guard of some additional formula uniquely identifying the observations of history by agent .

Clearly, vCGS are a subclass of iCGS, but still expressive enough to capture the whole of iCGS. Indeed, [8] provides a polynomial-time reduction of the model checking problem for from iCGS to vCGS. Intuitively, all components of an iCGS can be encoded by using propositional and visibility atoms only. In particular, since model checking under perfect information and perfect recall is undecidable on iCGS [21], it follows that this is also the case for vCGS. This also means that, in general, the ”implementation” of a strategy accomplishing some ATL objective along the above idea of ”refining” the guarded commands may yield an infinite set of guarded commands . The possibility to obtain a finite, refined set is therefore intimately related with the identification of a subclass of vCGS in which the model checking problem for ATL is decidable. We address this problem in the next section and provide a relevant case study for the relevant subclass in Section 6.

5 vCGS with Coalition Broadcast

Given the undecidability results in [7], it is of interest to find restrictions on the class of vCGS or language that allow for a decidable model checking problem. Hereafter, we introduce one such restriction that is also relevant for the security scenario presented in Section 6; thus allowing us to verify it against collusion. In that follows we fix a coalition of agents.

Definition 9 (-cast vCGS)

A vCGS with broadcast towards coalition (or -cast) satisfies the following conditions for every , , and :

  1. contains an assignment of the type for some .

  2. For , contains iff it contains also.

Remark 1

Condition (Cmp) ensures that each command for an agent outside the coalition determines explicitely the visibility of each variable in , which cannot just be copied via some transition. Hence, both conditions (Cmp) and , ensure that, in all states along a run excepting the initial state all agents inside coalition observe the same atoms owned by adversaries in . This statement, formalized in Lemma 1 below, is a generalization of the “absence of information forks” from [25], which disallows private one-way communication channels from agents outside the coalition to agents inside the coalition, in order to avoid undecidability of their synthesis problem.

The restriction in (Cmp) however does not apply at initial states: the indistinguishability relation is arbitrary on initial states. This makes systems satisfying Def. 9 strictly more general than systems not having “information forks” in [25]. To see that, we note that the notion of strategy in [25] amounts to the following: a strategy for agent is a function such that for all histories , (i) ; and (ii) if then . The difference between this definition and ours (where is a function from to ) implies that there is a unique initial state. This is not the case in our setting.

Indeed, CGS with multiple initial states and an arbitrary indistinguishability relation on these may be simulated by CGS with a unique initial state by allowing the environment (or adversaries) to do an initial transition to any of the initial states. But this additional initial transition must set the indistinguishability of the resulting state, which means that if we had two initial states in the original CGS with but , this creates an information fork in the sense of [25]. So our setting allows ”information forks only at initial states”, contrary to [25].

Note that Def. 9 still allows an agent to have a ”private one-way communication channel” to some agent , in the sense that, for some and reachable state , but for any other , so agent sees the value of which any other agent does not.

Remark 2

vCGS constrainted by Def. 9 are more general than ”broadcast” game structures from [6] or [42]. To see this, note that the setting from [6] amounts to the following restriction: for any state and distinct joint actions , , if and then for any . But this restriction disallows actions by an agent which update some variable which is invisible to any other agent, a fact which is permitted by Def. 9. Also our setting is more general than the “broadcast” systems in [42]. In such broadcast systems, condition is to be satisfied by all agents, both inside and outside the coalition, which is not the case here.

In what follows, the notation stands for the group knowledge relation for coalition , for the common knowledge for coalition , whereas for the distributed knowledge for [24]. Both notations are overloaded over states and histories: let be any of , , or , for and , then for all histories , , we set iff (i) , and (ii) for every , .

The following lemma is essential in proving the decidability result in Theorem 5.1. Intuitively, it states that histories that are related through the common knowledge of coalition , are compatible with the same strategy, and share the same initial state, are in fact in the distributed knowledge of that coalition. This can be seen as a generalization of Lemma 2 from [42].

Lemma 1

Let M be an -cast vCGS. Assume a joint strategy on M. Consider histories such that , , and for both . Then and in particular for all .

Proof

We will actually prove the following properties by induction on :

  1. For every and , iff .

  2. For every , .

  3. For each , and , .

Note that all these properties imply that .

The base case is trivial by the assumption that , so let’s assume the two properties hold for some . Since, as noted, this implies that , uniformity of implies that, . But then the effect of this unique tuple of actions on each atom is the same (actions are deterministic), which ensures property (1).

To prove property (2), assume there exist two joint actions such that for each , . Fix some and denote for both . Also take some and two agents . We will give the proof for , the general case following by induction on the length of the path of indistinguishabilities relating . And, for this, we assume, without loss of generality, that .

Assume now that . The first assumption, together with , implies that . So, by condition (Cmp) in Def. 9, for each , contains assignment , and, by condition , both contain . But, in this way, we get that . So . A similar argument holds if we start with or which proves that condition (2) holds.

For proving property (3), assume . By property (2) just proved, for every , hence for every . By assumption that and by definition of , there must exist some such that , and for every , iff . Hence this property must be met by , which ends our proof.

Remark 3

Lemma 1 still allows -cast vCGS in which, for some histories and , but when . That is, this lemma does not imply that common knowledge and distributed knowledge coincide on histories in general.

-formulas. Let be a set of agents. We denote the subclass of formulas where coalition operators only involve sets of agents as -formulas.

Theorem 5.1

The model checking problem for -cast vCGS and -formulas is 2-EXPTIME-complete.

Proof

The proof proceeds by structural induction on the given formula. We illustrate the technique when the formula is either of type or , which can be easily generalized to the case of formulas or when , since then any -cast vCGS is also a -cast vCGS. The general case follows by the usual structural induction technique: for each subformula of the type , we append a new atomic proposition which labels each state where coalition has a uniform strategy to achieve .

We construct a two-player game that generalises the information-set construction for solving two-player zero-sum games with imperfect information in [42]. The difficult part is to show that the information sets do not “grow” unboundedly. To this end, it suffices that, for each history compatible with a joint -strategy, we keep track just of the first and last state in the history. This is so since, by Lemma 1, every uniform -strategy will behave identically on two histories that share the first and last states and are related by the common knowledge relation for .

More technically, we build a turn-based game with perfect information in which the protagonist simulates each winning strategy for coalition on some finite abstractions of information sets. Set contains macro-states defined as tuples whose most important component are triples , where and represent the initial and the final state in a history, while is a bookkeeping bit for remembering whether the objective has been reached or not during the encoded history. Two triples in are connected via the common knowledge relation of M extended to tuples. Hence, intuitively, macro-states along a run in abstract a set of histories of equal length and related by the common knowledge relation in M.

The essential step in the construction of is to show that this abstraction is compatible with any uniform strategy. That is, for any two histories of equal length, starting in the same initial and ending in the same final state and related by the relation (on tuples of states), any uniform strategy prescribes the same action to any agent in coalition . So, agent does not need to remember all intermediate steps for deciding which action to choose, only the initial state and the final state of each history suffice. By doing so, all strategies in the original game M are simulated by strategies in the resulting game , and vice-versa.

We now formalise the construction of game . To this end, given a set , we denote by the relation of -indistinguishability extended to tuples: iff and for any bit . Then, is the common knowledge equivalence induced by and restricted to . Since the bit does not play a role in the -relation, we often simply write .

The set of states in is , with (resp. ) denoting the protagonist (resp. antagonist) states, and

The game proceeds as follows: in a macro-state the protagonist chooses a one-step strategy profile such that, for each , if for some , then . The control then passes to the antagonist which computes a new state as explained below: First, in the resulting state , one computes the set of outcomes:

Then, for each tuple , one computes . Additionally, a labelling is associated to as follows: for each , let . Then put:

The antagonist then picks a tuple and designates the new protagonist state as the tuple .

The objective of the protagonist is to reach macro-states with for all . We can show that in M coalition has a strategy to enforce iff in the protagonist has a winning strategy. The easy part is the inverse implication, since each winning strategy for the protagonist in gives enough information to construct a joint strategy for coalition in M to achieve . As for the difficult part, consider a strategy for coalition in M achieving . In order to build a strategy for the protagonist to win the game , we need to decide what action the protagonist chooses at a macro-set . Now, each triple may represent a whole family of histories in M with and , all of them related by the common knowledge relation in M. So, one might face the problem of consistently choosing one of the actions for playing at . Fortunately, Lemma 1 ensures that whenever we have histories with , , , and consistent with a uniform -strategy , then for all – and, as such, for all . Then, by denoting the history of macro-states that leads to with denoting the length of this history, the strategy can be chosen as follows: for each , choose any history of length in M with which is compatible with and put . It is not difficult to see that, whenever achieves objective in M, is winning for the protagonist in .

The case of is treated similarly, with the reachability objective being replaced with a safety objective for avoiding macro-states in which there exists with .

Finally, nesting of -formulas is handled by creating a new atom for each subformula of the given formula. This atom is used to relabel the second component of each tuple belonging to each macro-state as follows:

  • If is a boolean combination of atoms, then append to iff .

  • If for , then append to iff in the two-player game constructed as above for coalition and starting in the set of initial states where , the protagonist has a strategy for ensuring . A similar construction gives the labeling for .

  • If for , then append to iff there exists a tuple of actions (with defined at the previous item) such that all the macro-states directly reachable by actions extending to the whole have the property that for any , .

To end the proof, we note that the above construction is exponential in size of the given vCGS. Since we have a symbolic presentation of the vCGS, this gives the 2-EXPTIME upper bound. The 2-EXPTIME lower bound follows from the results on model-checking reactive modules with imperfect information [29], p398, table 1, general case for two-player reactive modules, which can be encoded as a model-checking problem for singleton coalitions for vCGS.

6 Coalition-cast vCGS in Modelling Security Problems

We now apply coalition-cast vCGS to the modelling of secure systems and their threats. We start by recalling the setting of Terrorist-Fraud Attacks [19] and the distance-bounding protocol by Hancke and Kuhn [31], then give an -cast vCGS model for this protocol and an ATL formula expressing the existence of an attack against the protocol, and finally we argue why the results from Section 4 are relevant for this case study.

Identity Schemes.

Distance-bounding (DB) protocols are identity schemes which can be summarised as follows: (1) via timed exchanges, a prover demonstrates that it is physically situated within a bound from a verifier ; (2) via these exchanges, the prover also authenticates himself to the verifier. Herein, we consider the distance-bounding (DB) protocol by Hancke and Kuhn [31]. A version of this protocol is summarised in Fig 1. In this protocol, a verifier will finish successfully if it authenticates a prover and if it is conceived that this prover is physically situated no further than a given bound.

Verifier Prover
secret: , bound secret:
initialization phase
pick
pick
distance-bounding phase
pick = ,
with
local time is
local time is =,
with
set by
checking and
Figure 1: A Depiction of the Hancke-Kuhn (HK) Protocol

In this protocol, the prover and the verifier share a long-term key . In the initialisation phase, produces a pseudo-random bitstring , where “ ” is concatenation. In the distance-bounding phase, pick randomly bits

and forms the challenge bitstring/vector

. It sends this to the prover and times the time to it to respond. ’s response-vector is formed from bits , where is the -th bit of if is , or the -th bit of if is . Finally, the verifier checks if the response was correct and if it did not take too long to arrive.

HK Versions.

In the original HK protocol [31], the challenges and responses are sent not in one bitstring and respectively, but rather bit by bit, i.e., and . The one timing step is also broken into separate timing. W.r.t. terrorist fraud (see description below), it can be easily proven that if there is an attack on the version of protocol presented in Figure 1, then there is an attack in the original protocol in [31] and vice-versa. Formal symbolic verification methodologies [16] such as the recent [18, 40, 19] are only able to capture the HK version presented in Figure 1 (i.e., modelling 1-bitstring challenge and not 1-bit challenges); and this is true w.r.t. checking for all attacks/properties, not just terrorist frauds. Unlike these, in our vCGS  we are able to naturally encode both the original HK protocol and the depiction in Figure 1. Yet, in Section 6, we present a vCGS encoding of the HK version in Figure 1, as it yields a model less tedious to follow step by step. If these verification passes, then =, otherwise this =.

Identity-fraud Attacks.

A possible threat is that of a collusion-based attack called terrorist-fraud (TF). In this, a dishonest prover , found far away from the honest verifier , helps an adversary pass the protocol as if was close to . However, a protocol is considered to suffer from such security problem, if there is a strategy for a dishonest