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Mitigating sampling bias in risk-based active learning via an EM algorithm

by   Aidan J. Hughes, et al.
The University of Sheffield

Risk-based active learning is an approach to developing statistical classifiers for online decision-support. In this approach, data-label querying is guided according to the expected value of perfect information for incipient data points. For SHM applications, the value of information is evaluated with respect to a maintenance decision process, and the data-label querying corresponds to the inspection of a structure to determine its health state. Sampling bias is a known issue within active-learning paradigms; this occurs when an active learning process over- or undersamples specific regions of a feature-space, thereby resulting in a training set that is not representative of the underlying distribution. This bias ultimately degrades decision-making performance, and as a consequence, results in unnecessary costs incurred. The current paper outlines a risk-based approach to active learning that utilises a semi-supervised Gaussian mixture model. The semi-supervised approach counteracts sampling bias by incorporating pseudo-labels for unlabelled data via an EM algorithm. The approach is demonstrated on a numerical example representative of the decision processes found in SHM.


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