MisMatch: Learning to Change Predictive Confidences with Attention for Consistency-Based, Semi-Supervised Medical Image Segmentation

by   Mou-Cheng Xu, et al.

The lack of labels is one of the fundamental constraints in deep learning based methods for image classification and segmentation, especially in applications such as medical imaging. Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is a promising method to address the challenge of labels carcity. The state-of-the-art SSL methods utilise consistency regularisation to learn unlabelled predictions which are invariant to perturbations on the prediction confidence. However, such SSL approaches rely on hand-crafted augmentation techniques which could be sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose MisMatch, a novel consistency based semi-supervised segmentation method. MisMatch automatically learns to produce paired predictions with increasedand decreased confidences. MisMatch consists of an encoder and two decoders. One decoder learns positive attention for regions of interest (RoI) on unlabelled data thereby generating higher confidence predictions of RoI. The other decoder learns negative attention for RoI on the same unlabelled data thereby generating lower confidence predictions. We then apply a consistency regularisation between the paired predictions of the decoders. For evaluation, we first perform extensive cross-validation on a CT-based pulmonary vessel segmentation task and show that MisMatch statistically outperforms state-of-the-art semi-supervised methods when only 6.25 are used. Furthermore MisMatch performance using 6.25 comparable to state-of-the-art methodsthat utilise all available labels. In a second experiment, MisMatch outperforms state-of-the-art methods on an MRI-based brain tumour segmentation task.


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