Metrics for 3D Object Pointing and Manipulation in Virtual Reality

06/12/2021
by   Eleftherios Triantafyllidis, et al.
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Assessing the performance of human movements during teleoperation and virtual reality is a challenging problem, particularly in 3D space due to complex spatial settings. Despite the presence of a multitude of metrics, a compelling standardized 3D metric is yet missing, aggravating inter-study comparability between different studies. Hence, evaluating human performance in virtual environments is a long-standing research goal, and a performance metric that combines two or more metrics under one formulation remains largely unexplored, particularly in higher dimensions. The absence of such a metric is primarily attributed to the discrepancies between pointing and manipulation, the complex spatial variables in 3D, and the combination of translational and rotational movements altogether. In this work, four experiments were designed and conducted with progressively higher spatial complexity to study and compare existing metrics thoroughly. The research goal was to quantify the difficulty of these 3D tasks and model human performance sufficiently in full 3D peripersonal space. Consequently, a new model extension has been proposed and its applicability has been validated across all the experimental results, showing improved modelling and representation of human performance in combined movements of 3D object pointing and manipulation tasks than existing work. Lastly, the implications on 3D interaction, teleoperation and object task design in virtual reality are discussed.

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