Mean and median bias reduction: A concise review and application to adjacent-categories logit models

by   Ioannis Kosmidis, et al.

The estimation of categorical response models using bias-reducing adjusted score equations has seen extensive theoretical research and applied use. The resulting estimates have been found to have superior frequentist properties to what maximum likelihood generally delivers and to be finite, even in cases where the maximum likelihood estimates are infinite. We briefly review mean and median bias reduction of maximum likelihood estimates via adjusted score equations in an illustration-driven way, and discuss their particular equivariance properties under parameter transformations. We then apply mean and median bias reduction to adjacent-categories logit models for ordinal responses. We show how ready bias reduction procedures for Poisson log-linear models can be used for mean and median bias reduction in adjacent-categories logit models with proportional odds and mean bias-reduced estimation in models with non-proportional odds. As in binomial logistic regression, the reduced-bias estimates are found to be finite even in cases where the maximum likelihood estimates are infinite. We also use the approximation of the bias of transformations of mean bias-reduced estimators to correct for the mean bias of model-based ordinal superiority measures. All developments are motivated and illustrated using real-data case studies and simulations



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