Machine Learning for Metasurfaces Design and Their Applications

by   Kumar Vijay Mishra, et al.

Metasurfaces (MTSs) are increasingly emerging as enabling technologies to meet the demands for multi-functional, small form-factor, efficient, reconfigurable, tunable, and low-cost radio-frequency (RF) components because of their ability to manipulate waves in a sub-wavelength thickness through modified boundary conditions. They enable the design of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) for adaptable wireless channels and smart radio environments, wherein the inherently stochastic nature of the wireless environment is transformed into a programmable propagation channel. In particular, space-limited RF applications, such as communications and radar, that have strict radiation requirements are currently being investigated for potential RIS deployment. The RIS comprises sub-wavelength units or meta-atoms, which are independently controlled and whose geometry and material determine the spectral response of the RIS. Conventionally, designing RIS to yield the desired EM response requires trial and error by iteratively investigating a large possibility of various geometries and materials through thousands of full-wave EM simulations. In this context, machine/deep learning (ML/DL) techniques are proving critical in reducing the computational cost and time of RIS inverse design. Instead of explicitly solving Maxwell's equations, DL models learn physics-based relationships through supervised training data. The ML/DL techniques also aid in RIS deployment for numerous wireless applications, which requires dealing with multiple channel links between the base station (BS) and the users. As a result, the BS and RIS beamformers require a joint design, wherein the RIS elements must be rapidly reconfigured. This chapter provides a synopsis of DL techniques for both inverse RIS design and RIS-assisted wireless systems.


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