Log In Sign Up

LTLf Synthesis under Partial Observability: From Theory to Practice

by   Lucas M. Tabajara, et al.

LTL synthesis is the problem of synthesizing a reactive system from a formal specification in Linear Temporal Logic. The extension of allowing for partial observability, where the system does not have direct access to all relevant information about the environment, allows generalizing this problem to a wider set of real-world applications, but the difficulty of implementing such an extension in practice means that it has remained in the realm of theory. Recently, it has been demonstrated that restricting LTL synthesis to systems with finite executions by using LTL with finite-horizon semantics (LTLf) allows for significantly simpler implementations in practice. With the conceptual simplicity of LTLf, it becomes possible to explore extensions such as partial observability in practice for the first time. Previous work has analyzed the problem of LTLf synthesis under partial observability theoretically and suggested two possible algorithms, one with 3EXPTIME and another with 2EXPTIME complexity. In this work, we first prove a complexity lower bound conjectured in earlier work. Then, we complement the theoretical analysis by showing how the two algorithms can be integrated in practice into an established framework for LTLf synthesis. We furthermore identify a third, MSO-based, approach enabled by this framework. Our experimental evaluation reveals very different results from what the theory seems to suggest, with the 3EXPTIME algorithm often outperforming the 2EXPTIME approach. Furthermore, as long as it is able to overcome an initial memory bottleneck, the MSO-based approach can often outperforms the others.


A Symbolic Approach to Safety LTL Synthesis

Temporal synthesis is the automated design of a system that interacts wi...

Finite LTL Synthesis is EXPTIME-complete

LTL synthesis -- the construction of a function to satisfy a logical spe...

Specification Decomposition for Reactive Synthesis (Full Version)

Reactive synthesis is the task of automatically deriving an implementati...

Decomposing GR(1) Games with Singleton Liveness Guarantees for Efficient Synthesis

Temporal logic based synthesis approaches are often used to find traject...

Synthesis of coordination programs from linear temporal logic

This paper presents a method for synthesizing a reactive program which c...

Parameterized Synthesis for Fragments of First-Order Logic over Data Words

We study the synthesis problem for systems with a parameterized number o...

Adapting to the Behavior of Environments with Bounded Memory

We study the problem of synthesizing implementations from temporal logic...