Low-rank representation of tensor network operators with long-range pairwise interactions

by   Lin Lin, et al.

Tensor network operators, such as the matrix product operator (MPO) and the projected entangled-pair operator (PEPO), can provide efficient representation of certain linear operators in high dimensional spaces. This paper focuses on the efficient representation of tensor network operators with long-range pairwise interactions such as the Coulomb interaction. For MPOs, we find that all existing efficient methods exploit a peculiar "upper-triangular low-rank" (UTLR) property, i.e. the upper-triangular part of the matrix can be well approximated by a low-rank matrix, while the matrix itself can be full-rank. This allows us to convert the problem of finding the efficient MPO representation into a matrix completion problem. We develop a modified incremental singular value decomposition method (ISVD) to solve this ill-conditioned matrix completion problem. This algorithm yields equivalent MPO representation to that developed in [Stoudenmire and White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2017]. In order to efficiently treat more general tensor network operators, we develop another strategy for compressing tensor network operators based on hierarchical low-rank matrix formats, such as the hierarchical off-diagonal low-rank (HODLR) format, and the H-matrix format. Though the pre-constant in the complexity is larger, the advantage of using the hierarchical low-rank matrix format is that it is applicable to both MPOs and PEPOs. For the Coulomb interaction, the operator can be represented by a linear combination of O((N)(N/ϵ)) MPOs/PEPOs, each with a constant bond dimension, where N is the system size and ϵ is the accuracy of the low-rank truncation. Neither the modified ISVD nor the hierarchical low-rank algorithm assumes that the long-range interaction takes a translation-invariant form.


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