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Looking at the whole picture: constrained unsupervised anomaly segmentation

by   Julio Silva-Rodríguez, et al.

Current unsupervised anomaly localization approaches rely on generative models to learn the distribution of normal images, which is later used to identify potential anomalous regions derived from errors on the reconstructed images. However, a main limitation of nearly all prior literature is the need of employing anomalous images to set a class-specific threshold to locate the anomalies. This limits their usability in realistic scenarios, where only normal data is typically accessible. Despite this major drawback, only a handful of works have addressed this limitation, by integrating supervision on attention maps during training. In this work, we propose a novel formulation that does not require accessing images with abnormalities to define the threshold. Furthermore, and in contrast to very recent work, the proposed constraint is formulated in a more principled manner, leveraging well-known knowledge in constrained optimization. In particular, the equality constraint on the attention maps in prior work is replaced by an inequality constraint, which allows more flexibility. In addition, to address the limitations of penalty-based functions we employ an extension of the popular log-barrier methods to handle the constraint. Comprehensive experiments on the popular BRATS'19 dataset demonstrate that the proposed approach substantially outperforms relevant literature, establishing new state-of-the-art results for unsupervised lesion segmentation.


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