Linking Souls to Humans with ZKBID: Accountable Anonymous Blockchain Accounts for Web 3.0 Decentralized Identity

by   Taotao Wang, et al.

A decentralized identity system that can provide users with self-sovereign digital identities to facilitate complete control over their own data is paramount to Web 3.0. The accounting system on blockchain is an ideal archetype for realizing Web 3.0 decentralized identity: users can create their accounts without registering with a central agent. Such an identity system is endowed with anonymity property: nobody knows the account's owner because the relationship between an account and the owner is invisible. Thus, user privacy is well protected even though the account's data is public. However, a disadvantage of such complete anonymity is that users can create multiple accounts without authentication to obfuscate their activities on the blockchain. In particular, the current anonymous blockchain account system cannot accurately register the social relationships and interactions between real human users, given the amorphous mappings between users and blockchain identities. Mistrust can be a major hurdle to the large-scale deployment of Web 3.0. This work proposes ZKBID, a zero-knowledge blockchain-account-based Web 3.0 decentralized identity scheme, to overcome endemic mistrust in blockchain account systems. ZKBID links souls (blockchain accounts) to humans (users) in a one-to-one manner to truly reflect the societal relationships and interactions between humans on the blockchain. With ZKBID, the users are accountable for their accounts anonymously, preserving privacy. ZKBID authenticates users using face match and then maps authenticated users to accounts. Zero-knowledge proofs encode the face match results, and user-account mappings employ linkable ring signatures to preserve anonymity. We implemented ZKBID and built a blockchain test network for evaluation purposes. Our tests demonstrate the effectiveness of ZKBID and suggest proper ways to configure ZKBID system parameters.


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