Corresponding author. This paper was partially supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFB0304100), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61672343 and No. 61733011), Key Project of National Society Science Foundation of China (No. 15-ZDA041), The Art and Science Interdisciplinary Funds of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (No. 14JCRZ04). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. Licence details: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Recently, dialogue and interactive systems have been emerging with huge commercial values [Qiu et al.2017, Yan et al.2016a, Zhang et al.2017, Huang et al.2018, Zhang et al.2018b, Zhang et al.2018a], especially in the e-commerce field [Cui et al.2017, Yan et al.2016b]. Building a chatbot mainly faces two challenges, the lack of dialogue data and poor performance for multi-turn conversations. This paper describes a fine-grained information retrieval (IR) augmented multi-turn chatbot - Lingke. It can learn knowledge without human supervision from conversation records or given product introduction documents and generate proper response, which alleviates the problem of lacking dialogue corpus to train a chatbot. First, by using Apache Lucene111http://lucene.apache.org to select top 2 sentences most relevant to the question and extracting subject-verb-object (SVO) triples from them, a set of candidate responses is generated. With regard to multi-turn conversations, we adopt a dialogue manager, including self-attention strategy to distill significant signal of utterances, and sequential utterance-response matching to connect responses with conversation utterances, which outperforms all other models in multi-turn response selection. An online demo is available via accessing http://188.8.131.52:8080/ServiceBot/demo/.
This section presents the architecture of Lingke, which is overall shown in Figure 1.
The technical components include 1) coreference resolution and document separation, 2) target sentences retrieval, 3) candidate responses generation, followed by a dialouge manager including 4) self-matching attention, 5) response selection and 6) chit-chat response generation.
The first three steps aim at selecting candidate responses, and in the remaining steps, we utilize sentences from previous conversations to select the most proper response. For multi-turn conversation modeling, we develop a dialogue manager which employs self-matching attention strategy and sequential utterance-response matching to distill pivotal information from the redundant context and determine the most proper response from the candidates.
Coreference Resolution and Document Separation
Since the response is usually supposed to be concise and coherent, we first separate a given document into sentences. However, long documents commonly involve complex reference relations. A direct segmentation might result in severe information loss. So before the separation, we used Stanford CoreNLP [Manning et al.2014] 222https://stanfordnlp.github.io/CoreNLP/index.html to accomplish the coreference resolution. After the resolution, we cut the document into sentences .
Target Sentences Retrieval
There is abundant information in the whole document, but what current message cares about just exists in some paragraphs or even sentences. So before precise processing, we need to roughly select sentences which are relevant with the current message. We used Apache Lucene to accomplish the retrieval. Given sentence collection from step 1, we retrieve relevant sentences . In our system, the value of is 2.
Candidate Responses Generation
Generally, the response to a conversation can be expressed as a simple sentence, even a few of words. However, sentences from a product introduction document are usually complicated with much information. To extract SVO, we used an open information extraction framework ReVerb [Fader et al.2011], which is able to recognize more than one group of SVO triples (including triples from the clauses). Figure 3 shows an example. Based on an utterance from , we extract its SVO triples , , , and by concatenating each triple, we obtain multiple of simple sentences .
The above first three steps generate all sentences and phrases as candidate responses, which are denoted as . What we need to do next is to rerank the candidates for the most proper response.
We combined self-matching attention strategy and sequential utterance-response matching to develop a multi-turn dialogue manager. Figure 3 shows the structure.
(1) Self-matching Attention
Since not all of the information is useful, it is a natural thought that adopts self-matching attention strategy to filter redundant information. Before that, we transform raw dialogue data into word embedding [Mikolov et al.2013]
firstly. Each conversation utterance or candidate response is fed to the gated recurrent units (GRUs)[Cho et al.2014]. Then, we adopt a self-matching attention strategy [Wang et al.2017] to directly match each utterance or response against itself to distill the pivotal information and filter irrelevant pieces.
(2) Response Selection
Following Sequential Matching Network (SMN) [Wu et al.2017], we employ sequential matching for multi-turn response selection. Given the candidate response set, it matches each response with the conversation utterances in chronological order and obtains accumulated matching score of the utterance-response pairs to capture significant information and relations among utterances and each candidate response. The one with highest matching score is selected as final response.
(3) Chit-chat Response Generation
When given a question irrelevant to current introduction document, Target Sentences Retrieval may fail, so we adopt a chit-chat engine to give response when the matching scores of all the candidate responses are below the threshold which is empirically set to 0.3. The chit-chat model is an attention-based seq2seq model [Sutskever et al.2014]
achieved by a generic deep learning frameworkOpenNMT333http://opennmt.net/OpenNMT. The model is trained on twitter conversation data, which has 370K query-reply pairs, and 300K non-duplicate pairs are selected for training.
We evaluate Lingke on a dataset from our Taobao444It’s the largest e-commerce platform in China. https://www.taobao.com. partners, which is a collection of conversation records between customers and customer service staffs. It contains over five kinds of conversations, including chit-chat, product and discount consultation, querying delivery progress and after-sales feedback. We converted it into the structured multi-turn format as in [Lowe et al.2015, Wu et al.2017]. The training set has 1 million multi-turn dialogues totally, and 10K respectively in validation and test set.
4 Usability and Analysis
In this section, we will discuss the usability of Lingke. In situation of lacking enough dialogue data such as when a new product is put on an online shop, Lingke only needs an introduction document to respond to customers. Because of the chit-chat response generation engine, Lingke can easily deal with any commodity-independent conversations. Thanks to our multi-turn model, Lingke will not get confused when customer gives incomplete questions which need to be understood based on context.
Figure 4-4 show two typical application scenarios of Lingke, namely, conversation record based and document-based ones, which vary based on the training corpus. Figure 4 shows Linke can effectively respond to the customer shopping consultations. The customer sends a product link and then Lingke recognizes it, and when the customer asks production specifications Lingke will give responses based on information from the context and the conversation record. Figure 4 shows a typical scenario when a customer consults Lingke about a new product. The customer starts with a greeting, which is answered by chit-chat engine. Then the customer asks certain features of a product. Note that the second response comes from a sentence which has a redundant clause, and main information the customer cares about has been extracted. In the third user utterance, words like “What” and “ZenBook Pro” are omitted, which can be deducted from the prior question. Such pivotal information from the context is distilled and utilized to determine proper response with the merit of self-matching attention and multi-turn modeling.
The user utterances of examples in this paper and our online demo are relatively simple and short, which usually aim at only one feature of the product. In some cases, when the customer utterance becomes more complex, for example, focusing on more than one feature of the product, Lingke may fail to give complete response. A possible solution is to concatenate two relevant candidate responses, but the key to the problem is to determine the intents of the customer.
We have presented a fine-grained information retrieval augmented chatbot for multi-turn conversations. In this paper, we took e-commerce product introduction as example, but our solution will not be limited to this domain. In our future work, we will add the mechanism of intent detection, and try to find solutions of how to deal with introduction document that contains more than one object.
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