Linear Time Construction of Indexable Founder Block Graphs

by   Veli Mäkinen, et al.

We introduce a compact pangenome representation based on an optimal segmentation concept that aims to reconstruct founder sequences from a multiple sequence alignment (MSA). Such founder sequences have the feature that each row of the MSA is a recombination of the founders. Several linear time dynamic programming algorithms have been previously devised to optimize segmentations that induce founder blocks that then can be concatenated into a set of founder sequences. All possible concatenation orders can be expressed as a founder block graph. We observe a key property of such graphs: if the node labels (founder segments) do not repeat in the paths of the graph, such graphs can be indexed for efficient string matching. We call such graphs segment repeat-free founder block graphs. We give a linear time algorithm to construct a segment repeat-free founder block graph given an MSA. The algorithm combines techniques from the founder segmentation algorithms (Cazaux et al. SPIRE 2019) and fully-functional bidirectional Burrows-Wheeler index (Belazzougui and Cunial, CPM 2019). We derive a succinct index structure to support queries of arbitrary length in the paths of the graph. Experiments on an MSA of SAR-CoV-2 strains are reported. An MSA of size 410× 29811 is compacted in one minute into a segment repeat-free founder block graph of 3900 nodes and 4440 edges. The maximum length and total length of node labels is 12 and 34968, respectively. The index on the graph takes only 3% of the size of the MSA.


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