Humans are increasingly interacting with machines via speech, which is an important impetus for studying the vocal channel of emotional expression. Applications of an interface capable of assessing emotional states from human voice are numerous and diverse, including communication systems for vocally-impaired individuals, call centers, lie detection, airport security, and realistic interaction with empathy. The aim of this work is the development of models capable of recognizing people’s emotions from recorded voice, also known as emotion recognition from speech.
Most emotional states involve physiological reactions, which in turn modify different aspects of the voice production process (Juslin and Laukka, 2003). Emotions produce changes in respiration and an increase in muscle tension, which influence the vibration of the vocal folds and vocal tract shape, thus affecting the acoustic characteristics of the speech. When someone is in a state of anger, fear or joy, the sympathetic nervous system is aroused, the heart rate and blood pressure increase, the mouth becomes dry and there are occasional muscle tremors. As a result, speech is loud, fast and enunciated with strong high frequency energy. Sadness, by contrast, is associated with a low, hesitant, and lacking in energy speech (Oudeyer, 2003).
While there is considerable evidence that speech features can differentiate emotional states (Deng et al., 2014a; Wöllmer et al., 2013; Stuhlsatz et al., 2011), the way in which physiological reactions translate into speech features may vary greatly depending on specific factors such as acoustic signal conditions, speakers, spoken languages, linguistic content, and type of emotion (e.g., acted, elicited, or naturalistic) (Drolet et al., 2012)
. Since each possible combination of such factors may define a specific domain, emotion recognition from speech becomes particularly challenging because it is unclear which speech features are the most effective for each domain. Also, it is challenging to train an emotion recognition system exclusively for the target domain due to unavailability of sufficient labeled data which limits the exploration of the feature space. Fortunately, there are potentially shared or local invariant features that shape emotions in different domains, thus transfer learning may alleviate the data demands.
In this paper, we propose a deep architecture for speech emotion recognition composed of a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a long short-term memory network (LSTM). The main hypothesis in this work is that the blend of a CNN with a LSTM exploits both spatial and temporal information of speech features for emotion recognition. That is, while the CNN extracts spatial features of varying abstract levels, the LSTM employs contextual information in order to model how emotions evolve over time. We discuss several feature transference approaches designed to our deep architecture. Such feature transference approaches differ in terms of the choice of which layers to freeze or tune, and whether or not target domain data are used during pre-training.
We conducted rigorous experiments using six standard speech emotion datasets that correspond to different domains. Recognition models are trained using different transference approaches, and we pose the following questions:
Which feature transference approach is the most appropriate, given factors such as the amount of labels and the discrepancy between domains?
How effective is the blend of CNN with LSTM networks for domain adaptation?
How effective is our recognition model compared with the state-of-the-art models for speech emotion recognition based on supervised domain adaptation?
We performed an ablation domain analysis in order to elucidate the benefits of incorporating multi-domain data into the final recognition model. We show that even small amounts of multi-domain data used for adaptation can significantly improve recognition effectiveness, while domain discrepancy poses serious issues to effective model adaptation. Also, the effectiveness of the different feature transference approaches varies greatly depending on the factors that define the target domain. We report gains that vary from 4.3% to 18.4%, depending on the target domain and feature transference approach.
2. Related Work
Research on the recognition of emotional expressions in voices is of great academic interest in psychology (Banziger et al., 2009), neurosciences (Tanaka et al., 2010; Stienen et al., 2011; Spreckelmeyer et al., 2009; Johnstone et al., 2006) and affective computing (Marchi et al., 2016; Schuller et al., 2015; Deng et al., 2014a; Wöllmer et al., 2013). A number of researchers investigated acoustic correlates of emotions from human speech. In one of the first studies (Williams and Stevens, 1972), the authors identify parameters in the speech that reflect the emotional state of a speaker. They found that anger, fear, and sorrow situations tend to produce characteristic differences in contour of fundamental frequency, average speech spectrum, temporal characteristics, precision of articulation, and waveform regularity of successive glottal pulses.
There are studies on how acoustic correlates of emotions from speech are transformed into features for supervised learning algorithms. In(Koolagudi and Rao, 2012; Ramakrishnan and Emary, 2013), the authors provide reviews on a wide range of features employed for emotion recognition from speech. In (Nogueiras et al., 2001)
, the authors present an approach based on hidden semi-continuous Markov models, which are built using specific energy and pitch features. In(Koolagudi et al., 2012)
, the authors employ mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) as features for a Gaussian mixture model classifier. A similar MFCC model was proposed in(Koolagudi et al., 2010) and features related to speaking rate are also explored to categorize the emotions. In (Rao et al., 2013), the authors propose speech prosody and related acoustic features for the recognition of emotion. Methods for emotion recognition from speech relying on long-term global prosodic features were developed. In (Batliner et al., 2011), the authors describe seven acoustic and four linguistic types of features, from which they found the most important ones, and also discuss the mutual influence of acoustics and linguistics. In (Schuller et al., 2009a), the authors introduce string kernels as a novel solution in the field.
Data Concerns Background noise, varying recording levels, and acoustic properties of the environment, and how these issues impact speech emotion recognition systems are discussed in (Eyben et al., 2012). More serious concerns about data used for emotion recognition from speech were presented in (Schuller et al., 2015), where the authors discuss issues related to the overestimation of the accuracy of emotion recognition systems, since experiments are usually performed on acted data (rather than on spontaneous data). Concerns with experiments performed on acted data were also discussed in (Seppi et al., 2008). Alternatively, more realistic acted data were recently presented in (Busso et al., 2017).
Transfer Learning and Domain Adaptation Since speech data are usually captured from different scenarios, it is often observed a significant performance degradation due to the inherent mismatch between training and test set. Thus, domain adaptation is a relevant topic in emotion recognition from speech. In (Zhang et al., 2016a), the authors explore a multi-task framework in which speech or song are jointly leveraged in emotion recognition in a cross-corpus setting. In (Song et al., 2016), the authors show that training and test data used for system development usually tend to be similar as far as recording conditions, noise overlay, language, and types of emotions are concerned. The authors conclude that a cross-corpus evaluation would provide a more realistic view of the recognition performance. In (Huang et al., 2017), the authors propose a feature transfer approach using a deep architecture called PCANet, which extracts both the domain-shared and the domain-specific latent features, leading to significant effectiveness improvements. In (Mao et al., 2016), the authors propose a two-layer network, so that the parameters within the second layer are imposed the common priors between the related classes, so that the classes with few labeled data in target domain can borrow knowledge from the related classes in source domain. In (Deng et al., 2014b)
, the authors present a feature transfer learning method using denoising autoencoders(Vincent et al., 2008) to build high order sub-spaces of the source and target corpora, where features in the source domain are transferred to the target domain by a specific neural network. Similarly, in (Deng et al., 2014a), the authors employ a denoising autoencoder as a domain adaptation method. In this case, prior knowledge learned from a target set is used to regularize the training on a source set. Finally, in (Abdel-Wahab and Busso, 2015), the authors propose a supervised domain adaptation approach which can improve the speech emotion recognition performance in the presence of mismatched training and testing conditions. In (Deng et al., 2013) the authors propose feature transfer learning based on sparse autoencoders. Their approach consists of learning a representation using a single-layer autoencoder, and then applying a linear SVM using the learned representation.
Feature Learning Deep neural networks were already used for emotion recognition from speech. In (Stuhlsatz et al., 2011), the authors propose a generalized discriminant analysis using deep neural networks. They show that low-dimensional features capture hidden information from the acoustic features leading to significant gains compared with typical SVMs. In (Deng et al., 2017), the authors assume a scenario where speech data are obtained from different devices and varied recording conditions. As a result, data are typically highly dissimilar in terms of acoustic signal conditions. They evaluate the use of denoising autoencoders (Vincent et al., 2008) to minimize this data mismatch problem. In (Han et al., 2014), the authors propose the use of deep neural networks to extract high level features from raw recorded voice. The network outperforms SVMs using hand-crafted features. In (Kim et al., 2013)
, the authors employ deep belief networks and their results suggest that learning high-order non-linear relationships using these networks is an effective approach for emotion recognition. In(Zhang et al., 2016b), the authors employ a feature enhancement method based on an autoencoder with LSTMs, for robust emotion recognition from speech. The enhanced features are then used by SVMs. In (Huang et al., 2014), the authors propose to learn salient features for speech emotion recognition using CNNs. The network is learned in two stages. In the first stage, unlabeled samples are used to learn local invariant features using sparse autoencoders with reconstruction penalization. In the second step, these features are used as the input to a feature extractor. In (Xue et al., 2015)
, the authors introduce an approach to separate emotion-specific features from general and less discriminative ones. They employ an unsupervised feature learning framework to extract rough features. Then these rough features are further fed into a semi-supervised feature learning framework. In this phase, efforts are made to disentangle the emotion-specific features and some other features by using a novel loss function, which combines reconstruction penalty, orthogonal penalty, discriminative penalty and verification penalty.
Our Work The main differences between this work and aforementioned works are: (i) we consider diverse domain adaptation approaches using CNN and LSTM features, (ii) we perform a domain ablation analysis which reveals the relative value of different domains, (iii) we perform domain blending, that is, we not just transfer features from one domain to another, but we produce generic features using data from multiple domains simultaneously. Further, we investigated the best freezing/tuning cut-off for each target domain.
3. Multi-Domain Network
The task of learning to recognize emotions from speech is defined as follows. We have as input the training set (referred to as ), which consists of a set of records of the form , where is an audio sample (i.e., an emotional episode) and is the corresponding emotion being expressed. Emotions draw their values from a discrete set of possibilities, such as sadness, fear, happiness, surprise, and anger. The training set is used to construct a model which relates features within the audio samples to the corresponding emotions. The test set (referred to as ) consists of records for which only the audio sample is available, while the corresponding emotion is unknown. The model learned from the training set
is used to produce estimations of the emotions expressed on audio samples in the test set.
We consider a learning scenario in which audio samples and their corresponding emotion labels are drawn from different generating distributions. For instance, some audio samples may be obtained from acted speech while other audio samples are obtained from spontaneous speech. The process that produces audio samples may also differ in terms of factors such as recording conditions, spoken language, and linguistic content. A specific combination of these factors defines a domain. Speech emotion recognition is a domain-specific problem, that is, a recognition model learned from one domain is likely to fail when tested against data from another domain (Ben-David et al., 2010). As a result, real application systems usually require labeled data from multiple domains, guaranteeing an acceptable performance for different domains. However, each domain has a very limited amount of labels due to the high cost to create large-scale labeled datasets for domain-specific speech emotion recognition. Feature transferability is thus an appealing way to alleviate the demands for domain-specific labels. Thus, for domains that are short of labeled data transferable features enable model adaptation from multiple domains.
3.1. Network Architecture
In this section, we introduce our deep architecture. It first extracts generic features from multi-domain data (or domain-shared features) which are then used to produce domain-specific and highly discriminative features. The architecture combines a deep hierarchical spatial feature extractor with a model that can learn to recognize and synthesize temporal dynamics of emotions, as illustrated in Figure 1
. The network works by passing each audio sample through a feature transformation to produce a fixed-length vector representation.111Padding was applied so that audios with different durations have representations with the same size. Also, features are standardized so that they are centered around 0 with a standard deviation of 1. After that, spatial features are computed for the audio input, and then the sequence model captures how emotions evolve over time.
More specifically, the network receives a 54,000 dimensional input representing audio samples. It has five hidden layers, including two uni-dimensional convolutional layers, one LSTM layer, and two fully connected layers. The convolutional layers apply kernels with 128 dimensions, combined with ReLUs and a dropout level of 0.30. The LSTM layer receives 128 dimensional inputs, and returns two 500 dimensional vector outputs which are then flattened into a single 1,000 dimensional output. The next two fully connected layers are composed of 1,000 units and are combined with the hyperbolic tangent activation. Again, a dropout level of 0.30 is applied. The final classification layer employs a softmax cross-entropy loss and thus the minimization problem is given as:
where is the cross-entropy loss function and
is the conditional probability that the network assignsto emotion label . The network is trained by the AdaDelta method, and six emotions are considered, namely: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. The network architecture is substantially smaller than others commonly used. We also evaluated deeper networks, but the resulting models showed to be less accurate and learning becomes significantly slower.
|Dataset/Domain||Age||Language||Emotion||Gender||Recording||Sampling rate||# samples|
3.2. Feature Transferability
We assume the presence of few labeled audio samples in the target domain, hence a direct adaption to the target domain via fine-tuning is prone to overfitting. We also assume that the training set is composed of audio samples belonging to different domains, and we can explicitly split into different domains, that is, . Thus, the goal of our deep architecture is to train a multi-domain network to differentiate emotions based on input audios associated with multiple domains. Although audio samples associated with a given domain may be better represented by specific features, there still exist some common features that permeate all other domains. Examples of such low-level features may include pitch, derivative of pitch, energy, derivative of energy, duration of speech segments, among others.
Transference Approaches The main intuition that we exploit for feature transferability is that the features must eventually transition from general to specific along our deep architecture, and feature transferability drops significantly in higher layers with increasing domain discrepancy (Yosinski et al., 2014). In other words, the features computed in higher layers must depend greatly on a specific domain , and recognition effectiveness suffers if is discrepant from the target domain. Since we are dealing with many domains simultaneously, we also considered multiple transference approaches, which are detailed next:
A1: no fine-tuning is performed, which means that the pre-trained model is used to recognize emotions.
A2: no layer is kept frozen during fine-tuning, which means that errors are back-propagated through the entire network during fine-tuning.
A3: only the first convolutional layer is kept frozen during fine-tuning.
A4: both convolutional layers are kept frozen during fine-tuning.
A5: convolutional and LSTM layers are kept frozen during fine-tuning. That is, errors are back-propagated only through the fully-connected layers during fine-tuning.
A6: only the first convolutional layer is kept frozen during fine-tuning. All other layers have their weights randomly initialized for fine-tuning.
A7: both convolutional layers are kept frozen during fine-tuning. All other layers have their weights randomly initialized for fine-tuning.
A8: convolutional and LSTM layers are kept frozen during fine-tuning. Weights in fully-connected layers are randomly initialized for fine-tuning.
Further, these transference approaches are applied considering different scenarios:
S1: target domain data are used during pre-training and fine-tuning.
S2: target domain data are used exclusively during fine-tuning.
4. Experimental Results
In this section, we present the datasets and baselines used to evaluate our multi-domain network for speech emotion recognition. Then we discuss our evaluation procedure and report the results of our multi-domain network.
In particular, our experiments aim to answer the following research questions:
How effective is the blend of CNN with LSTM networks for speech emotion recognition? How do the learned features compare against hand-crafted features?
Which feature transference approach is more appropriate to each target domain?
Which domain characteristics affect the most the accuracy of the model?
How effective is our multi-domain compared with other domain adaptation models?
4.1. Datasets and Domains
Our analysis is carried on six datasets which differ mainly in terms of language, number of speakers, number of emotions and spontaneity of speech. The details about each dataset are given next:
AFEW (Dhall et al., 2012): The Acted Facial Expressions In The Wild dataset contains segments from 37 movies in English. The movies have been chosen keeping in mind the need for different realistic scenarios and large age range of subjects to be captured.
Emo-DB (Burkhardt et al., 2005): The Berlin Emotional Speech dataset features actors speaking emotionally defined sentences. The dataset contains emotional sentences from 10 different actors and ten different texts.
EMOVO (Costantini et al., 2014): The dataset consists of sentences recorded by six professional actors. Each speaker reads fourteen Italian sentences expressing different emotions.
eNTERFACE (Martin et al., 2006): The dataset consists of recordings of naive subjects from fourteen nations speaking pre-defined spoken content in English. The subjects listened to six successive short stories eliciting a particular emotion.
IEMOCAP (Busso et al., 2008): The Interactive Emotional Dyadic Motion Capture dataset features ten actors performing improvisations in English, specifically selected to elicit emotional expressions. Each sentence is labeled by at least three human annotators.
RML:222http://www.rml.ryerson.ca/rml-emotion-database.html The dataset contains audiovisual emotional expression samples that were collected at Ryerson Multimedia Lab. The RML emotion database is language and cultural background independent. The audio samples were collected from eight human subjects, speaking six different languages (English, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi, Persian, Italian). Different accents of English and Chinese were also included.
We considered the following methods in order to provide baseline comparison:
Training on Target (TT): a model CNNLSTM is trained using only the target domain data. No source domain data are used. The main objective of using this baseline is to assess the benefits of the different feature transference approaches.
Adaptive SVM (Abdel-Wahab and Busso, 2015): this is a supervised domain adaptation algorithm for speech emotion recognition. The approach poses an optimization problem which seeks a decision boundary close to that of an SVM trained from the source domain, while managing to separate the labeled data from the target domain.
We implemented our architecture using Keras(Chollet, 2015). The measure used to evaluate the recognition effectiveness of our models is the standard Unweighted Average Recall (UAR),333The UAR metric is the sum of the recalls per class divided by the number of classes. as presented in (Schuller et al., 2009b)
. We conducted five-fold cross validation where datasets are arranged into five folds with approximately the same number of audio samples each. At each run, four folds are used as training set and the remaining fold is used as test set. The results reported are the average of the five runs, and are used to assess the overall discrimination performance of the models. To ensure the relevance of the results, we assess the statistical significance of our measurements by means of a pairwise t-test(Sakai, 2014) with pvalue .
4.4. Results and Discussion
The first experiment is concerned with RQ1. We present a comparison between SVMIS trained with Interspeech 2010 features, and our deep architecture was trained with raw audio. We considered deep architectures with and without the LSTM layer to assess the impact of using both spatial and sequential features. Table 2 shows UAR numbers for the different models. For this experiment, no domain adaptation is performed. Instead, samples from all datasets were used for training and testing the models using five-fold cross-validation. On average, the CNNLSTM model provides UAR numbers that are statistically superior than the numbers provided by SVMIS and CNN models (which are statistically equivalent on average), except for the dataset AFEW. Thus, the features learned by CNNLSTM architecture lead to significantly raised UAR numbers.
The next set of experiments is devoted to answer RQ2. We evaluate diverse feature transference approaches. Table 3 shows UAR numbers when our architecture is trained using solely target domain data (TT). Therefore, if the target domain is short on labeled data, the model will probably suffer from overfitting. The table also shows the gains obtained by each feature transference approach relatively to TT. That is, we investigated the best freezing/tuning cut-off for each target domain. On average, the best performing transference approach is S1A2, which uses target domain data during pre-training and fine-tuning and no layer is kept frozen during fine-tuning. Further, gains tend to decrease as more layers are kept frozen during fine-tuning. However, the best approach varies greatly depending on the target domain.
Considering AFEW as the target domain, the best transference approaches are S1A1, S1A4, and S1A7. Usually, using target domain data during pre-training is very beneficial, except for EMOVO for which the best performer was S2A3. Fine-tuning is extremely important in all cases, specially if target domain data are not used during pre-training. Gains for IEMOCAP are significantly lower than the gains obtained for other domains. Notice that IEMOCAP is the largest dataset, and thus TT achieves very high UAR numbers, which are hard to surpass with domain adaptation. For RML, the best transference approaches are those that freeze less layers. This is because RML is composed of highly diverse languages. Thus, freezing layers will only work if target domain data are used during pre-training. Otherwise, freezing layers would be clearly detrimental to domain adaptation. It is also important to mention that for each target domain, many feature transference approaches lead to significant improvements.
|UAR||Gains over TT|
The next set of experiments is devoted to answer RQ3. Table 4 shows UAR numbers obtained with a domain ablation analysis. More specifically, the table shows UAR numbers obtained by different feature transference approaches after excluding one of the source domains from the pre-training. This enables us to grasp the domain characteristics that affect the most the effectiveness of our multi-domain network.
The reference UAR value (All) is given by the model built using data from all domains. We first analyze scenario S1, in which target domain data are used during pre-training and fine-tuning. As can be seen, in almost all cases it is better removing one of the source domains from pre-training. Using AFEW data during pre-training is highly detrimental in all cases. The probable explanation is that the AFEW domain is highly discrepant from all other domains. Similarly, IEMOCAP data are highly detrimental for AFEW, Emo-DB, eNTERFACE and RML target domains. IEMOCAP data are also very discrepant from other domains. Removing out-of-domain data from pre-training is not beneficial only for S1A1 when RML is the target domain. Thus, we conclude that if target domain data are used during pre-training, it is detrimental to have out-of-domain data during pre-training, specially if out-of-domain data are highly discrepant from the target domain data.
Very different trends are observed when we analyze scenario S2. In this case, target domain data are used exclusively during fine-tuning, and therefore we may expect that out-of-domain data used during pre-training are less discrepant. Using IEMOCAP data during pre-training is highly beneficial. This is probable due to the size of IEMOCAP dataset. This is also a probable explanation for the robustness when removing specific out-of-domain datasets when IEMOCAP is the target domain. The RML domain seems to benefit the most from out-of-domain data. In general, we conclude that if target domain data are not included during pre-training, it is beneficial to have out-of-domain data during pre-training, even if out-of-domain data are highly discrepant from the target domain data.
The last set of experiments is concerned with RQ4, that is, to assess the effectiveness of our multi-domain network when compared with state-of-the-art domain adaptation solutions for speech emotion recognition. Table 5 shows UAR numbers obtained by Adaptive SVM. The table also shows UAR numbers obtained by our multi-domain network. As can be seen, our multi-domain network outperformed Adaptive SVM in all target domains considered in the study. Gains are statistically significant, and range from 4.3% to 18.4%, depending on the target domain.
Automatically recognizing human emotions from speech is currently one of the most challenging tasks in the field of affective computing. In solving this task we are often in the situation that we have a large collection of labeled out-of-domain data but truly desire a model that performs well in a target domain which is short on labeled data. To deal with this situation we proposed a deep architecture which implements a multi-domain network. More specifically,the architecture is a blend of CNN with LSTM networks, and extracts spatial and sequential features from raw audio. In order to evaluate different feature transference approaches, we investigated the best freezing/tuning cut-off for each target domain. We also investigated whether it is beneficial to use target domain data during pre-training. We performed a comprehensive experiment using six domains, which may differ in terms of language, emotions, amount of labels, and recording conditions. Our feature transference approaches provide gains that range from 4.3% to 18.4% when compared with recent domain adaptation approaches for speech emotion recognition.
We thank the partial support given by the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology for the Web (grant MCT-CNPq 573871/2008-6), Project: Models, Algorithms and Systems for the Web (grant FAPEMIG / PRONEX / MASWeb APQ-01400-14), and authors’ individual grants and scholarships from CNPq and Kunumi.
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