Learning to Remember Patterns: Pattern Matching Memory Networks for Traffic Forecasting

by   Hyunwook Lee, et al.

Traffic forecasting is a challenging problem due to complex road networks and sudden speed changes caused by various events on roads. A number of models have been proposed to solve this challenging problem with a focus on learning spatio-temporal dependencies of roads. In this work, we propose a new perspective of converting the forecasting problem into a pattern matching task, assuming that large data can be represented by a set of patterns. To evaluate the validness of the new perspective, we design a novel traffic forecasting model, called Pattern-Matching Memory Networks (PM-MemNet), which learns to match input data to the representative patterns with a key-value memory structure. We first extract and cluster representative traffic patterns, which serve as keys in the memory. Then via matching the extracted keys and inputs, PM-MemNet acquires necessary information of existing traffic patterns from the memory and uses it for forecasting. To model spatio-temporal correlation of traffic, we proposed novel memory architecture GCMem, which integrates attention and graph convolution for memory enhancement. The experiment results indicate that PM-MemNet is more accurate than state-of-the-art models, such as Graph WaveNet with higher responsiveness. We also present a qualitative analysis result, describing how PM-MemNet works and achieves its higher accuracy when road speed rapidly changes.


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