Learning the hypotheses space from data through a U-curve algorithm: a statistically consistent complexity regularizer for Model Selection

09/08/2021
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by   Diego Marcondes, et al.
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This paper proposes a data-driven systematic, consistent and non-exhaustive approach to Model Selection, that is an extension of the classical agnostic PAC learning model. In this approach, learning problems are modeled not only by a hypothesis space β„‹, but also by a Learning Space 𝕃(β„‹), a poset of subspaces of β„‹, which covers β„‹ and satisfies a property regarding the VC dimension of related subspaces, that is a suitable algebraic search space for Model Selection algorithms. Our main contributions are a data-driven general learning algorithm to perform regularized Model Selection on 𝕃(β„‹) and a framework under which one can, theoretically, better estimate a target hypothesis with a given sample size by properly modeling 𝕃(β„‹) and employing high computational power. A remarkable consequence of this approach are conditions under which a non-exhaustive search of 𝕃(β„‹) can return an optimal solution. The results of this paper lead to a practical property of Machine Learning, that the lack of experimental data may be mitigated by a high computational capacity. In a context of continuous popularization of computational power, this property may help understand why Machine Learning has become so important, even where data is expensive and hard to get.

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