# Learning-based Support Estimation in Sublinear Time

We consider the problem of estimating the number of distinct elements in a large data set (or, equivalently, the support size of the distribution induced by the data set) from a random sample of its elements. The problem occurs in many applications, including biology, genomics, computer systems and linguistics. A line of research spanning the last decade resulted in algorithms that estimate the support up to ±ε n from a sample of size O(log^2(1/ε) · n/log n), where n is the data set size. Unfortunately, this bound is known to be tight, limiting further improvements to the complexity of this problem. In this paper we consider estimation algorithms augmented with a machine-learning-based predictor that, given any element, returns an estimation of its frequency. We show that if the predictor is correct up to a constant approximation factor, then the sample complexity can be reduced significantly, to log (1/ε) · n^1-Θ(1/log(1/ε)). We evaluate the proposed algorithms on a collection of data sets, using the neural-network based estimators from Hsu et al, ICLR'19 as predictors. Our experiments demonstrate substantial (up to 3x) improvements in the estimation accuracy compared to the state of the art algorithm.

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