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Koopman Operator Learning: Sharp Spectral Rates and Spurious Eigenvalues

by   Vladimir Kostic, et al.

Non-linear dynamical systems can be handily described by the associated Koopman operator, whose action evolves every observable of the system forward in time. Learning the Koopman operator from data is enabled by a number of algorithms. In this work we present nonasymptotic learning bounds for the Koopman eigenvalues and eigenfunctions estimated by two popular algorithms: Extended Dynamic Mode Decomposition (EDMD) and Reduced Rank Regression (RRR). We focus on time-reversal-invariant Markov chains, implying that the Koopman operator is self-adjoint. This includes important examples of stochastic dynamical systems, notably Langevin dynamics. Our spectral learning bounds are driven by the simultaneous control of the operator norm risk of the estimators and a metric distortion associated to the corresponding eigenfunctions. Our analysis indicates that both algorithms have similar variance, but EDMD suffers from a larger bias which might be detrimental to its learning rate. We further argue that a large metric distortion may lead to spurious eigenvalues, a phenomenon which has been empirically observed, and note that metric distortion can be estimated from data. Numerical experiments complement the theoretical findings.


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