Investigating ADR mechanisms with knowledge graph mining and explainable AI

12/16/2020 ∙ by Emmanuel Bresso, et al. ∙ 0

Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are characterized within randomized clinical trials and postmarketing pharmacovigilance, but their molecular mechanism remains unknown in most cases. Aside from clinical trials, many elements of knowledge about drug ingredients are available in open-access knowledge graphs. In addition, drug classifications that label drugs as either causative or not for several ADRs, have been established. We propose to mine knowledge graphs for identifying biomolecular features that may enable reproducing automatically expert classifications that distinguish drug causative or not for a given type of ADR. In an explainable AI perspective, we explore simple classification techniques such as Decision Trees and Classification Rules because they provide human-readable models, which explain the classification itself, but may also provide elements of explanation for molecular mechanisms behind ADRs. In summary, we mine a knowledge graph for features; we train classifiers at distinguishing, drugs associated or not with ADRs; we isolate features that are both efficient in reproducing expert classifications and interpretable by experts (i.e., Gene Ontology terms, drug targets, or pathway names); and we manually evaluate how they may be explanatory. Extracted features reproduce with a good fidelity classifications of drugs causative or not for DILI and SCAR. Experts fully agreed that 73 are possibly explanatory for DILI and SCAR, respectively; and partially agreed (2/3) for 90 enable simple and explainable models to distinguish between drugs that are causative or not for ADRs. In addition to explaining classifications, most discriminative features appear to be good candidates for investigating ADR mechanisms further.

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