Introducing Network Coding to RPL: The Chained Secure Mode (CSM)

by   Ahmed Raoof, et al.

As the de facto routing protocol for many Internet of Things (IoT) networks nowadays, and to assure the confidentiality and integrity of its control messages, the Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) incorporates three modes of security: the Unsecured Mode (UM), Preinstalled Secure Mode (PSM), and the Authenticated Secure Mode (ASM). While the PSM and ASM are intended to protect against external routing attacks and some replay attacks (through an optional replay protection mechanism), recent research showed that RPL in PSM is still vulnerable to many routing attacks, both internal and external. In this paper, we propose a novel secure mode for RPL, the Chained Secure Mode (CSM), based on the concept of intra-flow Network Coding. The goal of CSM is to enhance RPL resilience against several routing attacks, with the ability to mitigate some of them. The security and performance of a proof-of-concept prototype of CSM were evaluated and compared against RPL in UM and PSM (with and without the optional replay protection) in the presence of Neighbor attack as an example. It showed that CSM has better performance and more enhanced security compared to the PSM with the replay protection. On the other hand, it showed a need for a proper recovery mechanism for the case of losing a control message.


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