Interpretation of the individual effect under treatment spillover

02/04/2019 ∙ by Forrest W. Crawford, et al. ∙ 0

Some interventions may include important spillover or dissemination effects between study participants. For example, vaccines, cash transfers, and education programs may exert a causal effect on participants beyond those to whom individual treatment is assigned. In a recent paper, Buchanan et al. provide a causal definition of the "individual effect" of an intervention in networks of people who inject drugs. In this short note, we discuss the interpretation of the individual effect when a spillover or dissemination effect exists.



There are no comments yet.


page 1

page 2

page 3

page 4

This week in AI

Get the week's most popular data science and artificial intelligence research sent straight to your inbox every Saturday.


  • Baeten et al. [2012] Jared M Baeten, Deborah Donnell, Patrick Ndase, Nelly R Mugo, James D Campbell, Jonathan Wangisi, Jordan W Tappero, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elly Katabira, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women. New England Journal of Medicine, 367(5):399–410, 2012.
  • Benjamin-Chung et al. [2017] Jade Benjamin-Chung, Benjamin F Arnold, David Berger, Stephen P Luby, Edward Miguel, John M Colford Jr, and Alan E Hubbard. Spillover effects in epidemiology: parameters, study designs and methodological considerations. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(1):332–347, 2017.
  • Buchanan et al. [2018] Ashley L Buchanan, Sten H Vermund, Samuel R Friedman, and Donna Spiegelman. Assessing individual and disseminated effects in network-randomized studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 187(11):2449–2459, 2018.
  • Choopanya et al. [2013] Kachit Choopanya, Michael Martin, Pravan Suntharasamai, Udomsak Sangkum, Philip A Mock, Manoj Leethochawalit, Sithisat Chiamwongpaet, Praphan Kitisin, Pitinan Natrujirote, Somyot Kittimunkong, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. The Lancet, 381(9883):2083–2090, 2013.
  • Cohen et al. [2011] Myron S Cohen, Ying Q Chen, Marybeth McCauley, Theresa Gamble, Mina C Hosseinipour, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, James G Hakim, Johnstone Kumwenda, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jose HS Pilotto, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(6):493–505, 2011.
  • Donnell et al. [2010] Deborah Donnell, Jared M Baeten, James Kiarie, Katherine K Thomas, Wendy Stevens, Craig R Cohen, James McIntyre, Jairam R Lingappa, Connie Celum, Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team, et al. Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis. The Lancet, 375(9731):2092–2098, 2010.
  • Eck et al. [2018] Daniel J. Eck, Olga Morozova, and Forrest W. Crawford. Randomization for the direct effect of an infectious disease intervention in a clustered study population. arXiv:1808.05593, 2018.
  • Green et al. [2014] Traci C Green, Madeline Ray, Sarah E Bowman, Michelle McKenzie, and Josiah D Rich. Two cases of intranasal naloxone self-administration in opioid overdose. Substance Abuse, 35(2):129–132, 2014.
  • Group [2015a] Insight Start Study Group. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy in early asymptomatic HIV infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(9):795–807, 2015a.
  • Group [2015b] Temprano ANRS 12136 Study Group. A trial of early antiretrovirals and isoniazid preventive therapy in Africa. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(9):808–822, 2015b.
  • Hudgens and Halloran [2008] Michael G Hudgens and M Elizabeth Halloran. Toward causal inference with interference. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 103(482):832–842, 2008.
  • Organization [2016] World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach. World Health Organization, 2016.
  • Sävje et al. [2017] Fredrik Sävje, Peter M Aronow, and Michael G Hudgens. Average treatment effects in the presence of unknown interference. arXiv:1711.06399, 2017.
  • Thigpen et al. [2012] Michael C Thigpen, Poloko M Kebaabetswe, Lynn A Paxton, Dawn K Smith, Charles E Rose, Tebogo M Segolodi, Faith L Henderson, Sonal R Pathak, Fatma A Soud, Kata L Chillag, et al. Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana. New England Journal of Medicine, 367(5):423–434, 2012.
  • VanderWeele and Tchetgen [2011] Tyler J VanderWeele and Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen. Effect partitioning under interference in two-stage randomized vaccine trials.

    Statistics & Probability Letters

    , 81(7):861–869, 2011.