Inflammatory Bowel Disease Biomarkers of Human Gut Microbiota Selected via Ensemble Feature Selection Methods

01/08/2020 ∙ by Hilal Hacilar, et al. ∙ 11

The tremendous boost in the next generation sequencing and in the omics technologies makes it possible to characterize human gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the microbial community that reside in our gastrointestinal tract). While some of these microorganisms are considered as essential regulators of our immune system, some others can cause several diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), diabetes, and cancer. IBD, is a gut related disorder where the deviations from the healthy gut microbiome are considered to be associated with IBD. Although existing studies attempt to unveal the composition of the gut microbiome in relation to IBD diseases, a comprehensive picture is far from being complete. Due to the complexity of metagenomic studies, the applications of the state of the art machine learning techniques became popular to address a wide range of questions in the field of metagenomic data analysis. In this regard, using IBD associated metagenomics dataset, this study utilizes both supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms, i) to generate a classification model that aids IBD diagnosis, ii) to discover IBD associated biomarkers, iii) to find subgroups of IBD patients using k means and hierarchical clustering. To deal with the high dimensionality of features, we applied robust feature selection algorithms such as Conditional Mutual Information Maximization (CMIM), Fast Correlation Based Filter (FCBF), min redundancy max relevance (mRMR) and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost). In our experiments with 10 fold cross validation, XGBoost had a considerable effect in terms of minimizing the microbiota used for the diagnosis of IBD and thus reducing the cost and time. We observed that compared to the single classifiers, ensemble methods such as kNN and logitboost resulted in better performance measures for the classification of IBD.

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