Independent Reinforcement Learning for Weakly Cooperative Multiagent Traffic Control Problem

by   Chengwei Zhang, et al.

The adaptive traffic signal control (ATSC) problem can be modeled as a multiagent cooperative game among urban intersections, where intersections cooperate to optimize their common goal. Recently, reinforcement learning (RL) has achieved marked successes in managing sequential decision making problems, which motivates us to apply RL in the ASTC problem. Here we use independent reinforcement learning (IRL) to solve a complex traffic cooperative control problem in this study. One of the largest challenges of this problem is that the observation information of intersection is typically partially observable, which limits the learning performance of IRL algorithms. To this, we model the traffic control problem as a partially observable weak cooperative traffic model (PO-WCTM) to optimize the overall traffic situation of a group of intersections. Different from a traditional IRL task that averages the returns of all agents in fully cooperative games, the learning goal of each intersection in PO-WCTM is to reduce the cooperative difficulty of learning, which is also consistent with the traffic environment hypothesis. We also propose an IRL algorithm called Cooperative Important Lenient Double DQN (CIL-DDQN), which extends Double DQN (DDQN) algorithm using two mechanisms: the forgetful experience mechanism and the lenient weight training mechanism. The former mechanism decreases the importance of experiences stored in the experience reply buffer, which deals with the problem of experience failure caused by the strategy change of other agents. The latter mechanism increases the weight experiences with high estimation and `leniently' trains the DDQN neural network, which improves the probability of the selection of cooperative joint strategies. Experimental results show that CIL-DDQN outperforms other methods in almost all performance indicators of the traffic control problem.



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