Incorporating human and learned domain knowledge into training deep neural networks: A differentiable dose volume histogram and adversarial inspired framework for generating Pa

08/16/2019 ∙ by Dan Nguyen, et al. ∙ 1

We propose a novel domain specific loss, which is a differentiable loss function based on the dose volume histogram, and combine it with an adversarial loss for the training of deep neural networks to generate Pareto optimal dose distributions. The mean squared error (MSE) loss, dose volume histogram (DVH) loss, and adversarial (ADV) loss were used to train 4 instances of the neural network model: 1) MSE, 2) MSE+ADV, 3) MSE+DVH, and 4) MSE+DVH+ADV. 70 prostate patients were acquired, and the dose influence arrays were calculated for each patient. 1200 Pareto surface plans per patient were generated by pseudo-randomizing the tradeoff weights (84,000 plans total). We divided the data into 54 training, 6 validation, and 10 testing patients. Each model was trained for 100,000 iterations, with a batch size of 2. The prediction time of each model is 0.052 seconds. Quantitatively, the MSE+DVH+ADV model had the lowest prediction error of 0.038 (conformation), 0.026 (homogeneity), 0.298 (R50), 1.65 prediction error of 0.134 (conformation), 0.041 (homogeneity), 0.520 (R50), 3.91 max dose PTV, Body, Bladder and rectum error, the MSE+DVH+ADV outperformed all other models. All model's predictions have an average mean and max dose error less than 2.8 can be the largest driver in the performance improvement, and adversarial learning can be used to further capture nuanced features. The real-time prediction capabilities allow for a physician to quickly navigate the tradeoff space, and produce a dose distribution as a tangible endpoint for the dosimetrist to use for planning. This can considerably reduce the treatment planning time, allowing for clinicians to focus their efforts on challenging cases.

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