Improving Computer-aided Detection using Convolutional Neural Networks and Random View Aggregation

by   Holger R. Roth, et al.

Automated computer-aided detection (CADe) in medical imaging has been an important tool in clinical practice and research. State-of-the-art methods often show high sensitivities but at the cost of high false-positives (FP) per patient rates. We design a two-tiered coarse-to-fine cascade framework that first operates a candidate generation system at sensitivities of ∼100 at high FP levels. By leveraging existing CAD systems, coordinates of regions or volumes of interest (ROI or VOI) for lesion candidates are generated in this step and function as input for a second tier, which is our focus in this study. In this second stage, we generate N 2D (two-dimensional) or 2.5D views via sampling through scale transformations, random translations and rotations with respect to each ROI's centroid coordinates. These random views are used to train deep convolutional neural network (ConvNet) classifiers. In testing, the trained ConvNets are employed to assign class (e.g., lesion, pathology) probabilities for a new set of N random views that are then averaged at each ROI to compute a final per-candidate classification probability. This second tier behaves as a highly selective process to reject difficult false positives while preserving high sensitivities. The methods are evaluated on three different data sets with different numbers of patients: 59 patients for sclerotic metastases detection, 176 patients for lymph node detection, and 1,186 patients for colonic polyp detection. Experimental results show the ability of ConvNets to generalize well to different medical imaging CADe applications and scale elegantly to various data sets. Our proposed methods improve CADe performance markedly in all cases. CADe sensitivities improved from 57 sclerotic metastases, lymph nodes and colonic polyps, respectively.


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