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Improved Algorithms for Recognizing Perfect Graphs and Finding Shortest Odd and Even Holes

by   Yung-Chung Chiu, et al.

Various classes of induced subgraphs are involved in the deepest results of graph theory and graph algorithms. A prominent example concerns the perfection of G that the chromatic number of each induced subgraph H of G equals the clique number of H. The seminal Strong Perfect Graph Theorem confirms that the perfection of G can be determined by detecting odd holes in G and its complement. Chudnovsky et al. show in 2005 an O(n^9) algorithm for recognizing perfect graphs, which can be implemented to run in O(n^6+ω) time for the exponent ω<2.373 of square-matrix multiplication. We show the following improved algorithms. 1. The tractability of detecting odd holes was open for decades until the major breakthrough of Chudnovsky et al. in 2020. Their O(n^9) algorithm is later implemented by Lai et al. to run in O(n^8) time, leading to the best formerly known algorithm for recognizing perfect graphs. Our first result is an O(n^7) algorithm for detecting odd holes, implying an O(n^7) algorithm for recognizing perfect graphs. 2. Chudnovsky et al. extend in 2021 the O(n^9) algorithms for detecting odd holes (2020) and recognizing perfect graphs (2005) into the first polynomial algorithm for obtaining a shortest odd hole, which runs in O(n^14) time. We reduce the time for finding a shortest odd hole to O(n^13). 3. Conforti et al. show in 1997 the first polynomial algorithm for detecting even holes, running in about O(n^40) time. It then takes a line of intensive efforts in the literature to bring down the complexity to O(n^31), O(n^19), O(n^11), and finally O(n^9). On the other hand, the tractability of finding a shortest even hole has been open for 16 years until the very recent O(n^31) algorithm of Cheong and Lu in 2022. We improve the time of finding a shortest even hole to O(n^23).


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