Identifying Risk of Opioid Use Disorder for Patients Taking Opioid Medications with Deep Learning

by   Xinyu Dong, et al.

The United States is experiencing an opioid epidemic, and there were more than 10 million opioid misusers aged 12 or older each year. Identifying patients at high risk of Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) can help to make early clinical interventions to reduce the risk of OUD. Our goal is to predict OUD patients among opioid prescription users through analyzing electronic health records with machine learning and deep learning methods. This will help us to better understand the diagnoses of OUD, providing new insights on opioid epidemic. Electronic health records of patients who have been prescribed with medications containing active opioid ingredients were extracted from Cerner Health Facts database between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2017. Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) models were applied to predict opioid use disorder risk in the future based on recent five encounters, and compared to Logistic Regression, Random Forest, Decision Tree and Dense Neural Network. Prediction performance was assessed using F-1 score, precision, recall, and AUROC. Our temporal deep learning model provided promising prediction results which outperformed other methods, with a F1 score of 0.8023 and AUCROC of 0.9369. The model can identify OUD related medications and vital signs as important features for the prediction. LSTM based temporal deep learning model is effective on predicting opioid use disorder using a patient past history of electronic health records, with minimal domain knowledge. It has potential to improve clinical decision support for early intervention and prevention to combat the opioid epidemic.


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