quotient
In mathematics and in the natural sciences , the quotient describes a ratio of two quantities to one another, i.e. the result of a division . The quotient of two whole numbers ( dividend and divisor ) is always a rational number and can be written as a fraction (e.g. for two thirds).
A quotient is often used to classify a value in an overall scale, e.g. B. the intelligence quotient , which relates the number determined by an intelligence test for a person to the “average intelligence ” of their age group . The intelligence quotient 100 stands for the average . Other examples are the proportions of the national flag or aspect ratios .
Ratios of similar sizes are often given in percent , whereby the value of the ratio does not change, e.g. B. . To get the percentage, multiply the ratio fraction by one, where . In the example: .
Special quotients in this sense are e.g. B .:
- The slope as the ratio of the increase in value on the vertical coordinate axis to the increase in value on the horizontal axis.
- The scale as the ratio of two lengths .
Many physical quantities are also defined as quotients, e.g. B.
- Expansion coefficient , efficiency ,
- Specific quantities such as density .
Proportions
Ratio equations or proportions are equations that equate two ratios:
and are also called forelimbs , and hind limbs of proportion. In addition, and are called outer links and and inner links . The proportion can be transformed into an equation of the form by cross multiplication . By swapping the inner links or the outer links of a proportion, new proportions are created: and . In addition, the laws of corresponding addition and subtraction apply :
Laws of corresponding addition and subtraction
Let the proportion be given. Then the proportions also apply
- and and and and .
Continuous proportions
Occasionally there is also the spelling
- ,
as " , , how behave to be pronounced." These continuous proportions , also called chain proportions or ratio chains, are not to be understood as a single equation, but rather are a short form for the two equations
- and
or equivalent
- and
- .
Examples
- The definition of the golden ratio
- The law of sines
- The ray sentences
- The law of refraction in optics
- The octave of music
Web links
Individual evidence
- ^ Walter Gellert, Herbert Kästner , Siegfried Neuber (eds.): Lexikon der Mathematik , VEB Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig, 1979. S 447, Proportion .