Heesch Numbers of Unmarked Polyforms

05/20/2021
by   Craig S. Kaplan, et al.
University of Waterloo
0

A shape's Heesch number is the number of layers of copies of the shape that can be placed around it without gaps or overlaps. Experimentation and exhaustive searching have turned up examples of shapes with finite Heesch numbers up to six, but nothing higher. The computational problem of classifying simple families of shapes by Heesch number can provide more experimental data to fuel our understanding of this topic. I present a technique for computing Heesch numbers of non-tiling polyforms using a SAT solver, and the results of exhaustive computation of Heesch numbers up to 19-ominoes, 17-hexes, and 24-iamonds.

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1 Introduction

Tiling theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the properties of shapes that can cover the plane with no gaps or overlaps. It is a topic rich with deep results and open problems. Of course, tiling theory must occasionally venture into the study of shapes that do not tile the plane, so that we might understand those that do more completely.

If a shape tiles the plane, then it must be possible to surround the shape by congruent copies of itself, leaving no part of its boundary exposed. A circle clearly cannot tile the plane, because neighbouring circles can cover at most a finite number of points on its boundary. A regular pentagon also cannot be surrounded by copies of itself: its vertices will always remain exposed.

Figure 1: The four non-tiling heptominoes. The shape on the left has a hole and cannot be surrounded. The other three can be fully surrounded by copies, but in the rightmost shape the copies will necessarily enclose a hole.

However, the converse is not true: there exist shapes that can be fully surrounded by copies of themselves, but for which no such surround can be extended to a tiling. For example, there are 108 heptominoes (shapes formed by gluing together seven squares), of which four, shown in Figure 1, are known not to tile the plane. One of them contains an internal hole and can be discarded immediately. As it happens, the other three can all be surrounded. In the middle two cases, the shape and its surrounding copies are simply connected. On the right, the surrounding tiles leave behind an internal hole, and no alternative surround can eliminate that hole.

Figure 2: A 23-omino that can be surrounded by two layers of copies of itself, but not more.

There is no a priori reason why a given non-tiling shape might not be surroundable by two, three, or more layers of copies of itself. The illustrations in Figure 1 provide lower bounds for the numbers of layers for these shapes; that they also represent upper bounds must be proven by enumerating all possible surrounds, and showing that none of them may be further surrounded. Other shapes might permit more layers. For example, the 23-omino shown in Figure 2, due to Fontaine [3], can be surrounded by two layers but not more. How far can this process be extended?

A shape’s Heesch number is the number of times it can be surrounded with complete layers of congruent copies of itself (I will offer a precise definition in the next section). If the shape tiles the plane, its Heesch number is defined to be infinity. Heesch’s problem asks which positive integers are Heesch numbers; that is, for which does there exist a shape with Heesch number ?

Very little is known about the solution to Heesch’s problem. Writing in 1987, Grünbaum and Shephard were not aware of any examples with finite Heesch number greater than 1 [5, Section 3.8]. After that, a few isolated examples were found with Heesch numbers up to 4 [8]. Mann and Thomas performed a systematic computer search of marked polyforms (polyominoes, polyhexes, and polyiamonds, with edges decorated with geometric matching conditions), yielding new examples and pushing the record to 5 [7]. In 2021 Bašić finally broke this record, demonstrating a figure with Heesch number 6 [1].

The study of Heesch numbers can shed light on some of the deepest problems in tiling theory. In particular, the tiling problem asks, for a given set of shapes, whether they admit at least one tiling of the plane. The tiling problem is known to be undecidable for general sets of shapes [2], but its status is open for a set consisting of a single shape . If there were an upper bound on finite Heesch numbers, then the tiling problem would be decidable, at least when there are only finitely many ways that two copies of may be adjacent [4]. The algorithm would involve trying the finitely many ways of surrounding with layers of copies of itself. If you succeed, then you have exceeded the maximum finite Heesch number and must tile the plane. If you fail, then evidently does not tile. To that end, more experimental data revealing which Heesch numbers are possible, even for limited classes of shapes, could be useful in understanding whether such an upper bound might exist.

In this article I report on a complete enumeration of Heesch numbers of unmarked polyforms, up to 19-ominoes, 17-hexes, and 24-iamonds. This enumeration comprises approximately 4.16 billion non-tilers, extracted from enumerations of all free polyforms of those sizes. Respecting a slight difference of opinion among researchers, I compute two variations of Heesch numbers: one where tiles may form holes in the outermost layer, and one where a shape and all its surrounding layers must be simply connected. This enumeration does not shatter the existing records for Heesch numbers, but it does provide a store of new examples of shapes with non-trivial Heesch numbers. Some, like a 9-omino with Heesch number 2 (Figure 7) and a 7-hex with Heesch number 3 (Figure 8), are interesting because of the complex behaviour exhibited by relatively simple shapes. The enumeration also uncovered seven new examples with Heesch number 4.

Apart from the tabulation and specific examples, the other main contribution of this work lies in the use of a SAT solver to compute Heesch numbers. Because polyominoes, polyhexes, and polyiamonds are subsets of ambient regular tilings of the plane, it is possible to reduce the geometric problem of surroundability to the logical problem of satisfiability of Boolean formulas. A SAT solver can optimize its search of the exponential space of possible solutions, avoiding the risk of “backtracking hell”. This formulation leads to a very reliable algorithm, whose performance degrades only on the rare shapes that actually have high Heesch numbers.

2 Mathematical background

Although Heesch’s problem grew out of tiling theory, most of the language, techniques, and results of tiling theory are not needed within the scope of this article and will be omitted. Readers interested in the topic should consult Grünbaum and Shephard’s book [5], which remains the standard reference. In this section I will formalize the definition of a shape’s Heesch number and review marked and unmarked polyforms.

2.1 Heesch numbers

Let and be simple shapes in the plane, i.e., topological discs. We say that can be surrounded by if there exists a set of shapes with the following properties:

  1. Each is congruent to via a rigid motion in the plane;

  2. The shapes in the set have pairwise disjoint interiors;

  3. The boundary of each shares at least one point with the boundary of .

  4. The boundary of lies entirely within the interior of the union of and all the .

The second condition forces the shapes not to overlap, except on their boundaries. The third condition forces every to be useful in covering the boundary of . The fourth condition ensures that is completely surrounded.

If, furthermore, the union of and the is simply connected, we say that can be surrounded by without holes. In tiling theory, a finite union of non-overlapping shapes whose union is a topological disc is also known as a patch, a term I will use here. On the other hand, I will use the more general term packing when shapes are known to be non-overlapping but when their union may or may not contain holes.

We formalize the notion of layers by defining the coronas of . We define the -corona of to be the singleton set . Setting above, if can be surrounded by itself then the tiles that make up that surround are one possible -corona of . In general, if we have a nested sequence of -coronas for , all without holes, and the patch created from the union of all of these coronas can itself be surrounded by , then the copies of making up the surround constitute an -corona.

The Heesch number of a shape is the largest for which has an -corona. If tiles the plane, then by definition it is possible to build an -corona for every positive integer , and we define its Heesch number to be infinity. If we wish to be concise, we will simply say that has .

The definitions above require that for a shape to have Heesch number , each -corona for surround its predecessor without holes. But it leaves the status of the outermost corona ambiguous. Most researchers require that a shape’s -corona be hole-free in order to regard the shape as having , but some permit the -corona to have holes. In this article I will remain neutral on this point, and report separate results with and without holes in the outer corona. To that end, I will say that a shape has and to distinguish its Heesch numbers when holes are or are not permitted in the outer corona, respectively. In any case, we must always have either or , so this difference of opinion cannot affect results too dramatically. (Note that permitting a hole in the outermost corona raises the alarming possibility that the hole could be filled with additional tiles, forcing us to consider the validity of a subsequent corona made from multiple disjoint pieces!)

2.2 Polyforms

A polyform is a shape constructed by gluing together multiple copies of some simple polygonal building block along their edges. Usually we require that the assembly be edge-to-edge: no vertex of one copy of the building block may lie in the interior of the edge of another copy. The most famous polyforms are the polyominoes, constructed from glued-together squares. We speak more specifically of -ominoes as unions of squares, so that, for example, the 4-ominoes (or tetrominoes) are the familiar Tetris pieces. In this article I will also consider polyhexes and polyiamonds, formed from unions of regular hexagons and unions of equilateral triangles, respectively, and refer more precisely to -hexes and -iamonds as needed.

Simple polyforms are an attractive domain in which to compute Heesch numbers. They can be explored exhaustively by enumerating the finite number of distinct -forms for each successive . The edge-to-edge constraint often reduces a continuous geometric problem to a combinatorial one, and in the technique presented here, even the combinatorial structure will be distilled into a problem in Boolean satisfiability. Still, polyforms can expose many of the core behaviours of shapes more generally. Conceivably one could establish an upper bound on Heesch numbers of, say, polyominoes, while leaving Heesch’s problem open more generally; but in the meantime, these calculations can yield a trove of interesting data.

In a marked polyform, the edges of a polyform are assigned symbolic labels, and a binary relation over labels determines which pairs of edges may be placed side-by-side in neighbouring copies of the polyform. A simple system of labels involves marking some edges with a “bump”, some with a corresponding “nick”, and leaving all others flat. Flat edges can only meet other flat edges, and bumps must be adjacent to nicks. Mann and Thomas computed Heesch numbers of simple polyforms with markings of this form [7]. They began with a small family of low-order polyominoes, polyhexes, and polyiamonds, enumerated all possible assignments of bumps and nicks to their edges, and computed the Heesch numbers of the resulting shapes using a recursive search with backtracking. Their search yielded a number of examples with Heesch numbers up to 5. However, the majority of their efforts produced inconclusive results: they either failed to produce a finite Heesch number in the time allotted to each shape, or terminated the computation at five coronas. The main reason for this deficiency is that they did not have an effective procedure for first computing whether a marked polyform tiles the plane. Most of their inconclusive results are likely to be shapes with Heesch numbers that are infinite, rather than high-but-finite.

To my knowledge, no previous work has sought to compute Heesch numbers of unmarked polyforms. Myers tabulated information about polyominoes, polyhexes, and polyiamonds that tile the plane [9]. He determined whether polyforms tiled in progressively more intricate ways, measuring the isohedral number of tilers (roughly speaking, the number of copies of the tile that must be glued together to produce a patch that tiles in a relatively simple way). Each of his tables includes a single column labelled “non-tilers”. This article sorts that columns into multiple bins organized by Heesch number, effectively tabulating the progressively more intricate ways in which polyforms do not tile. Myers’s software is remarkably efficient, requiring on average a fraction of a millisecond on modern hardware to classify a given polyform. I use his software to produce initial lists of non-tilers for Heesch number computation, thereby avoiding the needless construction of coronas for shapes that have infinitely many of them.

3 Computing Heesch numbers with a SAT solver

In this section I show how to reduce the problem of computing a polyform’s Heesch number to evaluating the satisfiability of a sequence of Boolean formulas. At a high level, each formula encodes whether a given polyform has Heesch number at least (with slight variations depending on whether to allow holes). I check the satisfiability of these formulas for increasing values of until I find one that is unsatisfiable, indicating the non-existence of a corona of a given level.

Every formula will be expressed in conjunctive normal form (CNF) as a conjunction of clauses, each of which is a disjunction of variables or their negations. That is, each clause ORs together any number of Boolean variables or their negations, and the entire formula is an AND of clauses. I use the standard operators for OR, for AND, and for NOT. I will also allow clauses to be written using an implication operator with a single variable on the left, converting to as needed.

To simplify the exposition, I will limit the development here exclusively to polyominoes. In the next section I will describe the modifications that are necessary to support polyhexes and polyiamonds.

3.1 Developing the base formula

Because our shapes will always meet edge-to-edge, we can assume that they will occupy cells in a conceptually infinite grid of squares, indexed by pairs of integer coordinates. For a given cell , we define , the 8-neighbourhood of , to be the set of cells horizontally, vertically, or diagonally adjacent to . Now let be an -omino whose Heesch number we wish to compute. We describe as a set of cells , translated so that . We will also make use of the halo of , written , the set of grid cells for which but . That is, consists of a ring of cells around the boundary of .

Ignoring symmetry, a polyomino has eight distinct rotated and reflected orientations, which can be represented by matrices with entries in

. We must also track translations of polyominoes by integer vectors

. Any possible transformed copy of can therefore be identified with six (usually small) integers that define an affine transformation . Two transformed shapes and are adjacent if they occupy neighbouring cells but do not overlap; that is, , but . For a fixed , I will also refer to and as adjacent in this context.

We are particularly interested in finite sets of transformations , containing every possible for which might be part of a -corona of . We can define these sets recursively by setting to be a singleton set containing the identity transformation, and each subsequent to be every transformation adjacent to some . Every -corona of , if one exists, must consist of copies of transformed by a subset of .

We are now ready to define two classes of Boolean variables: cell variables and shape variables. For every in the grid, the cell variable is true if and only if is covered by a transformed copy of . For every affine transformation and every integer , the shape variable is true if and only if the transformed shape is used as part of the -corona in a packing of copies of .

Given an integer , we can at last write down a Boolean formula whose satisfiability implies that has an -corona. is the conjunction of a large number of clauses, belonging to seven distinct classes. The clauses are listed in full in Figure 3, along with intuitive explanations of their meanings. Informally, we see that the 0-corona is activated by fiat, which in turn demands that its halo cells all be occupied by adjacent shapes. Additional clauses force those adjacent shapes to belong to the 1-corona, and to be pairwise disjoint. A similar process plays out in each subsequent corona before the last one: shapes in the corona tag their halo cells, thereby recruiting new neighbours to surround them. The shapes in the outermost corona are left partially exposed to empty space.

Clause and quantifiers Explanation
The 0-corona is always used.
For all For all For all If a copy of is used, then its cells are used.
For all For all Where If a cell is used, then some copy of must use it.

For all For all For all If a copy of is used in an interior corona (a -corona for ), then that copy’s halo cells must be used.

For all For all and Where And Used copies of cannot overlap.

For all For all Where is adjacent to If a copy of is used in a -corona, it must be adjacent to a copy in a -corona

For all Where For all For all Where is adjacent to If a copy of is used in a -corona, it cannot be adjacent to a copy in an -corona for .

Figure 3: The clauses that make up the Boolean formula , which is satisfiable if a shape has an -corona.

The formula can be given to a SAT solver, a program that consumes a Boolean formula and determines whether any assignment of true or false to its variables makes the entire formula true. If the solver reports that is satisfiable, then the coronas of can be read directly from the true variables in the satisfying assignment. I iteratively construct and check for each in turn; an unsatisfiable implies that has Heesch number . Unfortunately, does not contain a strict superset of the clauses of , and must be constructed starting from scratch.

3.2 Suppressing holes

If is satisfiable, then the subset of shapes out to the -corona will be a simply connected patch: every shape’s halo must be filled, and so no pockets of empty space can be left behind. However, there is nothing to prohibit holes from forming between shapes in the -corona. Thus the algorithm above can compute only whether has . If we wish to compute the hole-free Heesch number , then we must suppress all holes in the outermost corona.

Figure 4: A non-tiling 13-omino (left) that demonstrates the problem of detecting holes in the outermost corona. The middle illustration shows a 1-corona where two adjacent shapes enclose holes (one is indicated by an arrow). These holes can be suppressed by including a clause forbidding the two shapes from both being used. On the right, the 2-corona includes a hole bounded by three copies of the shape. Such holes are difficult to prevent, and are explicitly forbidden after the fact if they are found.

Most such holes that might arise are relatively simple, and can be suppressed easily. These are holes that are completely enclosed by a pair of adjacent shapes in the -corona (Figure 4, centre). I precompute all pairs of transforms for which is adjacent to but is not simply connected. When constructing , I treat such adjacencies as illegal, and add clauses of the form to prevent them.

However, it is also possible for the -corona to contain a hole enclosed by three or more different copies of (Figure 4, right). It would be prohibitive to precompute and suppress all possible holes formed by subsets of . Fortunately, such holes are exceedingly rare and can be eliminated one at a time as they arise, using a standard trick from discrete optimization. If I am trying to compute a shape’s hole-free Heesch number, and is reported as satisfiable, I “draw” the implied packing by assigning symbolic colours to the grid cells in a 2D image, with colours that index the transformed copies of . A simple algorithm such as flood filling can then search the packing for holes. If none are found, then has and the algorithm proceeds to testing . If a hole is found, its boundary will be made up of cells belonging to shapes transformed by some set . I add a clause , designed to prevent this precise hole, and re-run the SAT solver. By repeating his process, eventually we will either find a hole-free solution, or the solver will report the enriched as unsatisfiable, implying that has . Unfortunately, verifying that a patch is simply connected is necessary and potentially expensive; after initial preprocessing, it is the only part of the process that relies on the actual geometry of the problem rather than its reduction to Boolean logic. I am not aware of an effective way to design to force the -corona to be simply connected at the outset.

4 General polyforms

The geometry of polyominoes makes them easy to work with computationally, and simplifies the development of the previous section. All the geometric computations above can be represented quite compactly in software. If we assume that we will not enumerate beyond 23-ominoes (already an ambitious goal!), and that Heesch numbers will not exceed 5, then any conceivable set of coronas will fit inside a grid, meaning that a cell coordinate can fit in a single signed byte. By the same token, a transformation can easily fit in 32 bits: at a minimum, we require eight bits each for the coordinates of the translation, and three more to select a combination of rotation and reflection. Furthermore, any copy of a shape can be represented implicitly via its transformation, meaning that construction of can be carried out entirely with 32-bit integers, regardless of the size of . It is only when checking whether a patch is simply connected that I resort to instantiating a large grid and drawing copies of in it.

The SAT reduction above can be adapted to other classes of polyforms, provided that they are expressible as subsets of a fixed ambient tiling. That easily encompasses the regular tilings by hexagons and equilateral triangles, giving us polyhexes and polyiamonds. It rules out, for example, shapes formed from edge-to-edge assemblies of isosceles right triangles, sometimes known as polyabolos or polytans. Of course, even with polyhexes and polyiamonds we would like to keep the representation of shapes and transformations simple, compact, and discrete. The solution is to express all coordinates relative to non-standard basis vectors. This trick is fairly common when working with hexagonal grids in software, but I will summarize the approach here.

4.1 Polyhexes

Figure 5: The basis on the left allows every cell in an infinite hexagonal tiling to be assigned a unique pair of integer coordinates.

The cells in a hexagonal grid can be assigned integer coordinates in a basis with vectors and , connecting a hexagon centre to the centres of two of its neighbours. The basis is illustrated in Figure 5, together with a portion of a grid labelled with coordinate pairs.

A hexomino has a maximum of 12 distinct orientations, six direct and six reflected. They are generated by a transformation that rotates by about the origin, and a transformation that reflects across the axis. Working in the basis , these transformations have simple representations as matrices with integer entries:

The products for and yield matrices for all 12 orientations which, like their square counterparts, all have entries in . These can be combined with translations by vectors with integer coordinates to represent all possible transformations of a polyhex.

To construct the halo of a polyhex , we must consider every cell in the 6-neighbourhood (and not the 8-neighbourhood) of a given cell. These six neighbours can easily be found by offsetting the coordinates of a cell by the six coordinate pairs in the ring around in Figure 5. The revised definition of also affects the definition of adjacency, and by extension a number of the clauses that make up .

When suppressing holes, verifying that a packing of polyhexes is simply connected also depends on the distinct topology of the hexagonal grid. It is still possible to draw the packing directly into a square image using the cells’ integer coordinates and to use a flood fill to detect holes. But unlike the square case, after filling an empty grid cell the algorithm must walk recursively to the empty cells in its 6-neighbourhood.

4.2 Polyiamonds

Polyiamonds are slightly more complicated than polyominoes or polyhexes, in that there are two possible orientations for cells in the infinite tiling by equilateral triangles. So, for example, translations cannot simply bring any triangle into correspondence with any other—they must respect orientation. I build a somewhat exotic sparse integer representation of the triangular grid that harnesses the hexagonal representation described above.

Figure 6: Polyiamonds can be represented efficiently using a sparse subset of the hexagonal grid. The conceptual tiling on the left is spread out to the coloured cells in the hexagonal tiling on the right.

Figure 6 shows part of a triangular grid on the left, with upward-pointing black triangles and downward-pointing grey triangles. The illustration on the right shows how triangles are assigned coordinates in the hexagonal grid. Every black triangle has coordinates that are divisible by 3; every grey triangle has coordinates that are congruent to 1 modulo 3. Other hexagonal cells are simply left unused.

Like a polyhex, a polyiamond has a maximum of twelve orientations. Six of these correspond to automorphisms of the black triangle at in Figure 6, and can be found among the orientation matrices for hexominoes. The other six combine one of these six transformations with a transformation that swaps black and grey triangles, for example an application of above followed by a translation by . Any transformation of a polyiamond can be represented by a choice of orientation together with a translation by a vector whose coordinates are divisible by 3.

Neighbourhoods must also be reconsidered in this model. When computing haloes we must take into account the 12-neighbourhood of each cell in a polyiamond , consisting of all cells that share an edge or a vertex with the given cell. In Figure 6, the 12-neighbourhood of consists of every other black and grey triangle shown, together with one more at . The 12-neighbourhood is fine when computing haloes and determining adjacency, but not when checking a packing for holes. In that case, a flood fill algorithm should move from a given cell only to the three neighbours with which it shares an edge.

5 Implementation and results

I have implemented the data structures and algorithms described here as three separate C++ programs, for the three different polyform types. Each program reads a sequence of polyforms in plain text format, and produces a text report with the values of and for the input shapes. A command line option causes the programs to include, for each shape, the set of transformations that make up the coronas in the packings found by the SAT solver. A separate Python script can read the shape description and transformations and draw the coronas that realize the shape’s computed Heesch number.

The programs are unable to determine whether a shape tiles the plane, and must be given known non-tilers as input. I use software written by Joseph Myers [9] to enumerate free polyforms (which are unique up to rotation and reflection) and discard the shapes that tile. I then use a separate program to convert from the representation Myers uses in his output (a boundary word made up of unit steps from an alphabet of evenly spaced directions) to an area-based representation (coordinates of cells that make up a polyform).

I use the open-source CryptoMiniSat library 

[10] as my SAT solver. The library is easy to configure, has a simple C++ API, and performs well in practice.

non-tilers
7 3 1 2
8 20 6 14
9 198 75 122 1
10 1390 747 642 1
11 9474 5807 3628 39
12 35488 28572 6906 10
13 178448 149687 28694 67
14 696371 635951 60362 58
15 2721544 2598257 123262 25
16 10683110 10397466 285578 66
17 41334494 40695200 639162 130 2
18 155723774 154744331 979375 68
19 596182769 593856697 2325874 198
Table 1: Heesch numbers of -ominoes with no holes in the outer corona
non-tilers
7 3 0 3
8 20 0 19 1
9 198 36 157 5
10 1390 355 1020 15
11 9474 2820 6544 109 1
12 35488 17409 18038 41
13 178448 100180 78048 219 1
14 696371 485807 210362 202
15 2721544 2185656 535724 164
16 10683110 9300840 1381965 305
17 41334494 37932265 3401701 525 3
18 155723774 148955184 6768266 324
19 596182769 580412188 15769814 767
Table 2: Heesch numbers of -ominoes with holes permitted in the outer corona
non-tilers
6 4 3 1
7 37 5 25 6 1
8 381 70 264 44 3
9 2717 825 1822 67 3
10 18760 8248 10234 265 13
11 116439 67644 47940 817 37 1
12 565943 431882 133484 567 10
13 3033697 2565727 466159 1783 27 1
14 14835067 13676416 1156793 1836 22
15 72633658 69871458 2758485 3534 179 2
16 356923880 350337478 6581529 4818 54 1
17 1746833634 1731652467 15167876 13129 161 1
Table 3: Heesch numbers of -hexes with no holes in the outer corona
non-tilers
6 4 3 1
7 37 4 19 12 2
8 381 37 253 84 7
9 2717 434 2091 185 7
10 18760 4332 13766 632 29 1
11 116439 38621 75783 1956 73 6
12 565943 286656 277601 1652 32 2
13 3033697 1895666 1132994 4985 50 2
14 14835067 11201813 3627594 5614 46
15 72633658 61761205 10862327 9802 322 2
16 356923880 325357916 31551809 13997 156 2
17 1746833634 1660634503 86167750 30811 569 1
Table 4: Heesch numbers of -hexes with holes permitted in the outer corona
non-tilers
7 1 1
8 0
9 20 11 9
10 103 44 55 3 1
11 594 236 346 11 1
12 1192 826 364 1 1
13 6290 4360 1884 24 2
14 18099 14949 3141 8
15 54808 48108 6661 39
16 159048 148881 10153 13 1
17 502366 474738 27544 83 1
18 1374593 1341460 33100 33
19 4076218 4001470 74689 57 2
20 11378831 11282686 96091 51 2 1
21 32674779 32505745 168959 73 2
22 93006494 92740453 265977 62 2
23 264720498 264216706 503651 140 1
24 748062099 747476118 585571 384 26
Table 5: Heesch numbers of -iamonds with no holes in the outer corona
non-tilers
7 1 1
8 0
9 20 7 13
10 103 33 59 10 1
11 594 117 446 30 1
12 1192 495 692 4 1
13 6290 2639 3598 51 2
14 18099 10328 7745 25
15 54808 36965 17748 91 4
16 159048 124954 34058 35 1
17 502366 414119 88072 173 2
18 1374593 1239971 134541 80 1
19 4076218 3776105 299954 157 2
20 11378831 10921532 457157 139 2 1
21 32674779 31831654 842947 174 4
22 93006494 91551851 1454494 147 2
23 264720498 262051399 2668753 343 3
24 748062099 744472222 3589353 425 99
Table 6: Heesch numbers of -iamonds with holes permitted in the outer corona

A SAT solver imposes a small amount of overhead on running time, because of the need to translate problems from their geometric origins into Boolean formulas. However, the benefits of the solver more than compensate for this added cost. Human intuition is easily seduced by the structure of a geometric problem, and that intuition colours the choice of algorithm used in solving the problem. Sometimes the resulting algorithms are perfectly fine. But here, a “natural” approach—walk around the boundary of a shape, gluing on neighbours, and backtrack when no legal option exists for continuing—can get stuck in “backtracking hell”. An unavoidable dead end may lurk far out along the boundary of a shape, with exponentially many (or more!) configurations of neighbours to be explored along the way, all of which will be rejected. The earlier work of Mann and Thomas [7] attempts to surround in a fixed order, and they report a number of cases where their algorithm times out. A SAT solver has no particular opinion on the geometric structure of the problem domain. Its input is an undifferentiated collection of clauses, and it will take advantage of any opportunity it can find to narrow the search space, regardless of order or locality.

I have not attempted to gather full information about the running times of these programs. On a single core of a 40-CPU cluster node with 2.2 GHz Intel Xeon processors, I can compute the Heesch numbers of all 1390 non-tiling 10-ominoes in about 220 seconds, on average about 0.16 seconds per shape. I have also sampled the running times on batches of the much larger 17-hexes, and the average per-shape computation time is comparable. Unsurprisingly, the computation time appears to increase exponentially for shapes with higher Heesch numbers. For example, shapes with Heesch number 4 might require 30 seconds to a minute of computation time. But because such shapes become progressively more rare as the Heesch number increases, the overall effect on computation time is negligible.

Tables 16 list Heesch numbers for all the non-tiling polyforms I tested, up to 19-ominoes, 17-hexes, and 24-iamonds. For values of smaller than those shown in the tables, no non-tilers exist. Permitting holes in the outermost corona offers shapes more freedom to form coronas. As a result, the rows of the tables are weighted slightly more to the right than the corresponding rows of the tables.

Figure 7: The smallest polyominoes with Heesch numbers 2 and 3, with and without holes in the outermost corona. The 11-omino has a single square hole on the right side of the packing.
Figure 8: The smallest polyhexes with .
Figure 9: The smallest polyiamonds with .

Of course, a few highlights deserve to be shared. I am particularly interested in the smallest polyforms that exhibit each successive Heesch number. Figure 1 already shows the smallest polyominoes with and . Figure 7 shows the smallest polyominoes with Heesch numbers 2 and 3, both with and without holes. In Figures 8 and 9, I show the smallest polyhexes and polyiamonds with hole-free Heesch numbers 1 through 4. In all cases, my search did not produce any shapes with Heesch numbers higher than the ones shown.

6 Conclusions

In this article I have demonstrated the effectiveness of recasting the computation of Heesch numbers within the framework of Boolean satisfiability. I used a software implementation of this idea to compute Heesch numbers for a few billion unmarked polyominoes, polyhexes, and polyiamonds. The search did not yield any shapes that break previous records for Heesch numbers, but provides a lot of data that can be used to deepen our understanding of this intriguing open problem in tiling theory.

The most obvious avenue for future work is to continue the enumeration to larger polyforms. However, I am reluctant to do so without significant performance improvements or insights on narrowing the set of polyforms to process. For example, there are more than twice as many 18-hexes as all the Heesch numbers I have computed so far: over 8.5 billion of them. If they require an average of 0.15 seconds each to process, I estimate that a 120-core cluster would have to run full-tilt for four months to compute them all.

It would be interesting to reformulate the approach presented here using binary integer programming [6] instead of Boolean satisfiability. Some families of clauses might be expressed much more compactly this way. With satisfiability, if transformed shapes all overlap at some cell, then clauses of the form are required to rule out all possible overlaps. In binary integer programming, the shape variables would be assigned the integers 0 or 1, and all overlaps at this cell could be prevented with the single inequality . However, it is unclear whether this change would boost performance.

Part of the goal of assembling a large corpus of data is to mine it for patterns. I do not believe that the tables in this article betray any obvious patterns in the sizes of polyforms that produce certain Heesch numbers. The general upward trend in each column could be a simple consequence of the exponential growth in the number of shapes being classified, and even then the numbers jump around erratically. But there may be some insight to be gleaned from examinations of the shapes themselves. Mann and Thomas refer to “forced grouping”, in which tiles in a patch tend to cluster together into larger units [7]. I have observed this phenomenon in many of my results as well—see for example the 11-hex patch in Figure 8. Forced grouping may inspire strategies for “amplifying” the Heesch number of a large shape by finding a way to decompose it into smaller congruent pieces.

Perhaps the most promising way forward is to consider other families of shapes. The techniques in this article could easily be extended to handle marked polyforms, simply by prohibiting adjacencies that are not compatible with the markings. However, it would be crucial to apply markings to polyforms that tile the plane. Markings can only lower an unmarked shape’s Heesch number, making it pointless to add markings to any of the polyforms presented here. It would therefore become necessary to check explicitly that a set of markings prevents a polyform from tiling, whether based on combinatorial imbalance or a more complex computation. Of course, it would be interesting to explore the use of a SAT solver (or integer programming) to check whether a shape tiles the plane.

It may also be possible to extend this work to polyforms that are not subsets of an ambient grid, like the polyabolos mentioned previously, or shapes constructed from unions of Penrose rhombs. In that case we would likely have to do away with haloes and cell variables, and use computational geometry to test whether two copies of a shape are disconnected, adjacent, or overlapping. The lack of a grid to organize the plane would incur a heavy cost, but the greater potential for disorder may pack higher Heesch numbers into smaller shapes.

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments withheld during peer review.

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