1 Overview of Health and Medicine
The history of significant trends are important for us to understand health today and its future developments, especially in understanding patterns that cause progress. From ancient times until today, humans pay most attention to their health with the lens of healing from illness. From a traditional point-of-view, the health of the individual only became a concern when negative impact could be perceived, causing the development of systems that operate in the following steps. First, the individual acts as the primary sensor that their health state is not the same as earlier. Second, a doctor or domain expert would conduct further tests to gain an understanding of the causal reason behind the change in the health state. Third, the doctor or health expert would prescribe medication or procedure that would hopefully return the individual to their former health state. After this point, the individual is no longer monitored until then next issue arises. The impacts on the health state occur due to several critical situations. Situations that are significant impacts on health are listed below. Each situation has a particular state estimation challenge and a unique set of actions to keep health and homeostasis.
Infections have historically been a threat to health. The resulting invasion from different species battles with natural immune defenses, medical agents such as antibiotics, or physical removal.
Cancer occurs due to errors in the genetic information of a cell. There is a natural rate of error for DNA replication enzymes, which causes errors during each division of a cell GSBrush1996DNAMechanisms, a component of natural life and the process by which evolution occurs. We, therefore, see age as a factor for cancer. Additional errors in the DNA structure happen by insults from carcinogens, inflammation, or stress.
Physiological function of the person determines their operation from cellular to organismal level. This includes the pumping of the heart to supply blood flow, the strength of bones to provide support, the absorption of nutrition in the digestive system, and the capacity to see. Many chronic diseases are a result of physiological dysfunction.
Injury can occur from either chronic issues or acute events. Overuse or improper use may eventually result in injury. Acute injuries are caused by unintentional accidents and or intentional combat. The severity can range from mild to traumatic.
Neurological and mental health is a complex topic and traverses a broad range of sciences. Inherently there are some components of this aspect that are objective and others that are subjective, leading to unique challenges in scientific progress.
Developmental disorders are caused by various factors determined by cellular growth from fertilization until adulthood. As examples, these can be encoded in genetic errors (chromosomal errors at birth), cell signaling biology (receptor dysfunction), or deficiency during growth (low bone mass from low dietary calcium).
Before the twentieth century, infectious disease was a key determining factor for mortality. With emerging infections, finding a cure, or reactively treating the disease that had already occurred became commonplace. This is why health was primarily determined by the absence of illness or disease Armstrong1999TrendsCentury. The progress in the dramatic reduction of infectious disease came through significant advances in state detection and actionable steps. The state detection improved through the use of culturing the infection and microscopy to identify the pathogen. Culturing amplifies the signal from the infectious agent. We use these techniques even today, although further advances in gene sequencing and other assays promise to speed diagnosis time and precision. Actionable steps to address the infection are usually antibiotics or antiviral medications.
Adversarial pathogens became less of a fixture in medical research over the last century, and chronic diseases became the center point of health challenges. These chronic diseases are primarily a result of physiological function change. Currently, six in 10 adults in the United States have a chronic disease; 4 in 10 adults have two or more. This makes chronic disease the leading cause of death and disability NationalCenterforChronicDiseasePreventionandHealthPromotion2019ChronicAmerica. The major chronic disease that dominated epidemiological data since 1940s was and continues to be cardiovascular diseases as shown in Figure 3, with 647,000 Americans dying from heart disease each year (or 1 in 4 deaths) CDC2020HeartCdc.gov. Heart disease is, therefore, the leading cause of death in the United States. These above situations are mostly modeled using large-scale population data by aggregating individuals to produce statistically significant outcomes due to the lack of high-resolution personal data. Thus the state estimation for chronic disease is based on a population model that predicts the health outcomes of an individual. Measurements on the individual are taken generally on an annual basis to update the state. Medications are given to individuals if the state changes to a new classification, given population model thresholds. Overall for chronic disease, patient state estimation is conducted through general modeling, updated on an episodic basis.
While genetics and mutations play a role, CVD and a significant portion of cancers are largely a function of external factors that can be addressed by factors extrinsic to the biological risk, such as lifestyle and the environment. Cancer develops from both random intrinsic DNA replication errors (or “bad luck”) and from factors not related to genetics. Cancer causation is multi-factorial and the modification of risk factors is critical in cancer prevention Wu2018EvaluatingFactors. If external and environmental risk factors dominate, then lifestyle choice, which reduces risk exposure, is crucial for this reduction. One-third of cancers are attributable to environmental factors or inherited predispositions Tomasetti2015VariationDivisions. The approach to chronic diseases has been similar to infectious diseases in that treatment has been a reaction to symptoms. Introductions to medication continue; however, the rate of disease decrease has stabilized, as shown in Figure 3. This motivates the need for more robust methods to address these diseases than sole reliance on medication developments and reactive approaches for addressing when an individual is already in a state of disease. Furthermore, tracking the lifestyle and environmental events give substantial clues into the evolving health state of the person in addition to medications or procedures that assist in reducing risk for disease. In summary, the actionable items to address the chronic disease are widespread and occurring at every moment of the day.
Health science disciplines usually still focus on these reactive approaches today. Integrating the knowledge from this is essential, as the illness lens highlights regions of our health state that are undesirable. This thesis work will primarily focus on physiological function concerning cardiovascular function and disease, as it is the primary determinant of major chronic diseases.
2 Modern Trends in Health Sciences
There is a need for better state estimation and actionable steps for future progress. As reactive methods for addressing disease is no longer sufficient for a global decrease in rates of chronic disease, we examine new models. These approaches require a true understanding of the individual state of health and predicting and preventing entry to poor health state regions. Personalized methods also acknowledge that individual state must be uniquely observed, requiring high quality and quantity of data about an individual.
Projections show that medicine and the health sciences will move from a reactive to a proactive discipline over the next few decades — a discipline that is predictive, preventive, precise, personalized, and participatory Hood2011PredictiveMedicine; Sagner2017TheHealthspan. There must be a holistic approach to disease, emerging technologies, and analytical tools to ensure proactive advancements. Holistic approaches refer to the total connected network of the individual’s health. Emerging technologies include the proliferation of sensors and computing power, and analytical tools refer to the manipulation of large amounts of information to produce meaningful and actionable insight. Other advances we will also review include developments the growing wellness industry which are currently outside the scope of the healthcare industry. Wellness focuses on moving a patient towards the optimal state of health, as shown in the future health continuum in Figure 2. In contrast, healthcare focuses on moving the patient from the red area of dysfunctional health to the level of mediocre health. We will take a deeper dive into these new approaches as they will be an integral part of the design requirements of this research.
2.1 Personalized Health
Personalized health refers to building individual models to represent the health state, and tailoring inputs for a specific individual. Personalization includes two key sub-models. The first is understanding of an individual’s preferences and life situation, encapsulating the subjective attributes and autonomy of the user. On the other hand personalization for the biological machinery is an objective model. As an example, in Figure 4, the individual heart electrical patterns are modeled Arevalo2016ArrhythmiaModels. Data from “omic” sources are incorporated to understand the complexity of an individual’s biology, which includes genetics, genomics, microbiome, proteomics, and metabolomics Nicholson2005GutCare. The word “oma” refers to a mass in Latin, and in the context of omic data refers to the large mass of information. There must be a combination of both of these models (subjective and objective) for many use cases. Examples include food preferences for a diet change and exercise preferences for modulating cardiovascular health.
Personalized medicine, which is more specific in the treatment of disease, is used in the context of focusing on a person’s unique molecular profile to help them be less susceptible to disease. Genetics plays a large role in personalized medicine to understand one’s unique traits and shape the biological model through this knowledge. The Human Genome Project had an impact on producing treatments that could be better tailored to the individual. Reading the sequence of the DNA will allow one to predict how an individual will respond to a particular drug and to receive earlier diagnoses and risk assessments for more appropriate treatment Vogenberg2010PersonalizedTheranostics. Objective personalization alone is not enough, as the person must be part of the whole loop Coote2015IsWorld. The integration of contextual components relevant to the user’s wishes and preferences is just as important. As mentioned earlier, augmenting the data and model with subjective data from the user also has unique challenges. From this model, we can create predictions, precisely guide the individual, and prevent entry into undesirable regions of the health state space.
2.2 Predictive Health
Prediction refers to estimating the probability of a future event.
Prediction refers to estimating the probability of a future event.Improvements in this require the above personal model. Predictive medicine is a branch of medicine that focuses on risk identification for a disease, such as a future unwanted biological event, including a heart attack. The goal is to identify patients at risk that could then enable prevention or early treatment. This can be done by either single or multiple analyses as markers for future disease Bach1996PredictiveMedicine. Risk calculation of particular diseases and obtaining characteristics of individuals could help medical professions to predict a patient’s risk for an outcome of interest and also determine what treatment may be most effective. The Emory Predictive Health and Society Strategic Initiative and its Center for Health Discovery and Well Being define health in the context of the entire human experience. They identify measurable variables that describe and predict a healthy state and to use that knowledge to design health-focused interventions that are affordable and effective Brigham2010PredictiveCare. Predictive health utilizes data sources from a diverse array including genomics and epidemiology in order to best predict the risks for an individual. From a computational perspective, this requires data mining to find patterns that pull in knowledge from population and individual components, while also employing learning techniques for data-driven pattern discovery.
2.3 Precision Health
Precision health refers to more accurate approaches to understanding the health state and optimizing inputs to produce the ideal state. For example, while doctors may inquire about family history of disease to understand hereditary risk, a more precise approach would be to sequence one’s DNA in order to analyze the genetics data for inherited disease risk. This greater detail in understanding allows for a more targeted approach in the estimation and input selection. Precision will contribute to improving HSE and inputs through various avenues that we will discuss below.
Biological understanding with more precision, allows for better state estimation and input approaches. At an organ level, each individual has unique biology. In the case of cardiovascular function, models shown in Figure 4 are also precise, in that they try to pinpoint precisely the nature of the cardiovascular electrical activity Arevalo2016ArrhythmiaModels. At a molecular level, the details of signaling pathways and cellular processes allow for better health and medicine. A classic example in medicine is in the Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor drug class. Ibuprofen is a drug that inhibits all COX enzymes, which help in reducing pain but also cause problems for COX enzymes, which are part of general functions in the gut. The classification of Ibuprofen is thus a non-specific COX inhibitor. The discovery of COX-1 and COX-2 specific sub-types gave rise to a new class of medications that are specific for COX-2 (the component responsible for pain), allowing for more the development of more advanced pain medications (Figure 5). This improvement in the precision of molecular targets continues to be an active area of science. Lastly, genetics greatly influences precise and personal biological understanding, which we will review next.
Genetics plays a fundamental role in having precise information for molecular and cellular modeling and targeting for an individual. Even more cutting edge in this field is the use of immune therapy, in which a person’s own white blood cells are trained to precisely identify and destroy cancer cells in the body rather than delivering poisons that impact both healthy and cancer tissue Wolchok2009GuidelinesCriteria. Furthermore, targeting specific antibodies can more precisely treat an autoimmune disease. These are examples of biological targeting using genetics. Risk modelling and predictive efforts may also use genetics. For example, the BRCA gene is a determinant of breast cancer risk. Patients having high-risk BRCA genes may elect to have mastectomies or get screened more frequently, given this genetic risk. In summary, genetics allows for many aspects of state estimation or technologies to provide a more accurate outcome for an individual.
Location precision on the body is a general concept that may improve many areas of health. The traditional crude approach is to give a general pain killer medication that is distributed to the whole body via the blood and has adverse side effects due to the lack of a specific target. A precision approach would understand where the inflammation is in the knee and deliver a medication targeted to only the knee tissue and molecular pathways of relevance to the disease pathology. For example, a cream or injection is more precise than an oral pill. Topical NSAIDs may be better for localized pain near the surface of the skin, such as pain in the hands and knees, while oral NSAIDs may be better for pain deep within the body. Similarly, location for surgery can be more precise using laparoscopic methods, rather than an invasive open procedure. Precision in surgical methods also enables providers to be more accurate in their procedures, making fewer mistakes and damage to healthy tissue. Laser cataract surgery is needed to remove a cataract. In this procedure, a small probe is inserted into the eye, emitting ultrasound waves to break up the cataract into pieces. In laser surgery procedures, lasers are used to make incisions to create a more precise opening to the lens capsule Center2020LaserFAQs.
Dosage of inputs, such as drugs, can be more precise to the needs of an individual. Context, the personal model, and the components mentioned above characterize precise needs. When an individual is in high altitude, there is an adverse effect on coagulation in patients taking Warfarin TissotvanPatot2006RiskM. If the dosage of the medication could be controlled depending on the location of the individual, this could be more precise in controlling the coagulation more appropriately. Cytochrome P450 is an enzyme that metabolizes the breakdown of drugs; individuals have different rates of breakdown depending on their specific enzyme type. Knowing the exact sensitivity and breakdown methods will better allow for precise drug dosage. Extending beyond drugs, we can understand there is a precise quantity of inputs that produce the optimal outcome of the individual’s health state. Knowing the precise amount for each input (such as food, exercise, drugs, environment, sleep) is a precision challenge.
Precision medicine is a specific subset of precision health focused on optimizing the inputs to better alter the health state. Medicine is an input that is purposefully designed to change the health state in a certain circumstance. The NIH defines precision medicine by how genetics, environment, and lifestyle can help determine the best approach to prevent or treat disease NIH2020WhatReference. More medical institutions such as Stanford Medicine are using precision medicine via unique biology and life circumstances for diagnostics Ritcher2015PrecisionIt. Former President Barack Obama launched the Precision Medicine Initiative to accelerate these advancements, emphasizing how precision medicine will enable health care providers to tailor treatments to better suit patients through the use of gene sequencing and lifestyle factors. To get there, we need data about the patient collected by health professionals and the patients themselves House2020PrecisionInitiative. From a computational perspective, this requires an in-depth database for capturing the relevant domain knowledge that matches precisely with each individual’s context and personal model. Capturing this high resolution of data and having the individual take action on the best inputs requires them to be a part of the cybernetic loop.
2.4 Participatory Health
Participatory health refers to an individual directly engaging with understanding their health state and providing inputs for change. Traditionally healthcare providers were the key individuals who understood patient health state and decided how to alter it. The providers and patients generally held all information had little interaction with their health state (other than through following directions on medications). However, more recently, healthcare providers and patients are working as partners in health by using communication tools to increase active patient participation in medical decisions. This approach uses physical and physiological tracking devices, “easy-to-use software that records one’s data, analyzes them, interprets them graphically, and allows one to share and compare them with others. This is expected to enable more reliable self-monitoring and more self-management of health care” Martin-Sanchez2013BiomedicalHealth. Ultimately, participatory medicine refers to the patient taking actions that change their health state, rather than depending upon the healthcare team to address the changing health state of an individual. From a computational perspective, this requires development in human-computer-interaction (HCI) for engagement, integrating into relevant services for the user, and learning patterns from the event streams, which increase the probability of the user completing specific actions.
2.5 Preventive Health
Prevention refers to altering the probability of a future event / or avoid region of interest. Preventive health behavior has been described in 1966 by Kasl and Cobb, as “any activity undertaken by a person who believes himself to be healthy for the purpose of preventive disease or detecting disease in an asymptomatic stage, in contrast with illness behavior for an individual who is ill, defining the stage of health and discovering remedy” Kasl1966HealthBehavior.. Today, preventive medicine is a medical specialty recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), focusing on promoting health and well-being and preventing disease, disability, and death. Physicians in the preventive medicine specialty practice in the sub-specialty areas of public health and general preventive medicine, occupational medicine, and aerospace medicine. While officially, preventive medicine is practiced medically with these specific guidelines, the field of preventive medicine continues to ameliorate individual risk for disease by altering the probability of future risk. It represents a health state as a compilation of risks and seeks actions that reduce this risk based on evidence. Based on the predictive component, preventive measures are taken, such as the common practice of reducing risk factors for heart disease. These risk factors include lowering cholesterol, blood pressure, and other modifiable components. Knowing the heart health state, however, requires much more depth. From a computational perspective, this requires mapping the regions which are undesirable in the health state space, understanding the user health state, and providing inputs that increase the distance to the undesirable regions.
2.6 Healthcare Systems
Healthcare defined in this work includes all services and products that are within the scope of health insurance coverage. The economic size of this field globally is 7.3 trillion US Dollars GlobalWellnessInstitute2016StatisticsInstitute
. This field is evolving to encompass new frontiers that will impact individual health. The healthcare industry is attempting to address the complexity of individual health via technological advancements such as digital therapeutics, pharmacy supply chain, virtual primary care, artificial intelligence, genomics, and advancements in consumer health and wellness. There are also developments for providers including diagnostics, and drug research and development to ultimately enhance their servicesCBInsights2019Global2019. Trends in the healthcare industry show that consumers have access to more personalized healthcare options that provide a concierge level of service and are expanding convenience through services like video conferencing. There is also greater transparency of healthcare services, given the level of engagement individuals are now having with the health system. All together, healthcare is growing in domains for the individual, providers, and systems at large. The primary computing advancements for HSE will be in using more advanced diagnostics that are too expensive or exclusive for the patient to procure on their own.
2.7 Performance and Wellness
A large developing area within modern approaches to holistic health is through the modes of “wellness,” the consideration of inputs of lifestyle, the environment, and social and perceptual factors. Together, these bring about a more robust consideration of health in daily living and behavioral considerations, and an improvement in health performance, rather than an emphasis on eliminating or reducing disease. The economic size of this field globally is 4.5 trillion US Dollars GlobalWellnessInstitute2016StatisticsInstitute. The wellness industry is targeting improvement in various components of an individual’s life, as outlined by CBInsights CBInsights2019WellnessTech_MarketMap1.png1333888. Many of the services provided involve tracking and developing methods for changing the health state. High growth areas which include areas for technological advancements for individual health include:
Personalized nutrition such as food and beverages, vitamins/supplements, and active nutrition.
Beauty and personal care.
Fitness and active living, including gym access applications, activity tracking, and measurement of physiological changes.
Mental wellness including behavioral change programs, educational platforms for mindfulness/meditation.
Corporate wellness as provided by an individual’s employer, that provides comprehensive platforms for interactive with health such as by measuring, tracking, understanding and making changes to one’s state in multiple domains of their health.
Sleep technologies to track, change behaviors, and understand the best methods for sleep improvement specific to an individual.
E-commerce for the sale of online health specific products.
Feminine care to address women’s unique health needs.
Travel/hospitality to provide modes of experiencing wellness via retreats and getaways.
Clothing and fit unique for one’s active performance.
Functional health or primary care medical practice with a holistic approach, combining nutrition, lifestyle, and medical testing.
New forms of wellness demonstrate the convergence of personalized medicine with digital health, artificial intelligence, systems biology, social networks, big data analysis, and precision medicine. This field is known as scientific wellness. “The idea of scientific wellness is a quantitative approach that includes improving the health of individuals, creating personalized treatments, reversing disease transitions and reducing costs — distinct from the current wellness trend focusing primarily on behaviors such as diet and lifestyle” Sullivan2018TheWellness. People will then be able to use data and tools to modify habits for diet, exercise, sleep, and more to optimize personal health.
Looking historically and at current advancements, progress in health depends on estimating the health state in order to realize improvements in the treatment of disease or helping individuals live well. Thus the state estimation and health measurements over time are critical for scientific progress.
3 Health State Estimation is Critical for Progress
Even though the World Health Organization (WHO) for 74 years has defined a preliminary health state, there continue to be inferior methods by which to understand the individual health state. The first page of Google Scholar with the search term “health state estimation” (as of January 1st 2020) primarily displays results in the health state of batteries, drilling, machines, ball bearing, and aircraft engines. The challenge remains in developing a generalized framework for estimating the health state of humans. Health is estimated in most detail when we are in our worst state in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at a hospital. Humans doctors with minimal historical knowledge or elementary quantitative modeling of the individual are making judgments about the state of health for their health decisions. Using this judgment, they provide episodic actions to re-direct the health state to an acceptable level, not an optimal level.
Methods for measurement have been developed through time to estimate particular components of health more accurately and more often. Microscopy and the identification of microorganisms detected specific pathogens, highlighting the presence of what pathogens determined disease. The Framingham Heart Study, which started in 1948, has reviewed a diverse population over time to analyze patterns, trends, and outcomes that may apply to the general population. One finding was the discovery of cholesterol and its impact on CVD. From measurements at a population level, the relationship between cholesterol and the progression of CVD was established Institute2018FraminghamNHLBI. Thus, cholesterol now has become an indicator of CVD and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), as described by the American Heart Association (AHA) Ross2016ImportanceAssociation; Lee2010MortalityFitness..
The more health estimation moves towards real-time, it will open doors for controlling health more precisely. For example, the first glucose monitor was introduced in the 1970s and then began the self-monitoring of blood glucose. Advancements in continuous glucose monitoring, which read blood glucose monitors more frequently, gave more precise information to manage diabetes. The accuracy of the sensors has been improving over time, and the frequency for measurements has increased HirschIrlB2018HistoryMonitoring. Quantified Self, a movement with the motto “self-knowledge through numbers” embodies the importance of continuous health measurements. The movement aids individuals in using different technologies to collect data on their daily living (i.e., food intake, physiology) to analyze and improve their health state. Sensors are also more commonly used to collect genetic, environmental, and phenotype information and storage in the personal health record Martin-Sanchez2013BiomedicalHealth. Objective Self takes the quantified self concept towards a more computationally robust representation of the individual by establishing a basic model about the individual jain2014objective.
What we need is a means by which we can continuously know our health state at all times in high temporal and spatial resolution. A parallel example is accessing GPS location on-demand, anytime. In a total health state space, an individual can see where they are in their state space and choose their location within the state space. Disease is just a subset of this state space of regions that are undesirable, similar to not driving a car into the middle of the ocean. What one cares about are the places to be, and the health state required to be there. Ultimately, why is the HSE needed?
Measurement is the first step that leads to control and eventually to improvement. If you can’t measure something, you can’t understand it. If you can’t understand it, you can’t control it. If you can’t control it, you can’t improve it.
- H. James Harrington
This dissertation contributes towards the advancement of dynamically computing the health state of an individual throughout every moment in life. The evolving state of the individual depends on the integration of both domain knowledge and data-driven discovery frameworks that facilitate computation of how data streams and event streams are related. The connected nature of life is modeled computationally through graph-based abstraction and combinatorial generalization. This state estimation paradigm allows individuals or entities to use the continually computed state as a foundation to build systems that can perturb the state towards a chosen goal. An application of this is done through a cybernetic and navigational approach. The focus will be through the physiological function lens, especially of CVD and CRF. Below the contributions are distilled into two main subgroups of general concepts and personalization concepts, visualized in Figure 6.
The general concepts include, but are not limited to:
Precisely defining health. Because health is defined in many different terms, we focus on the definition at the scale of an individual. A precise definition sets the best stage for any computation and measurement.
Establishing the dimensions of health. The complex nature of health requires high-level abstraction to represent critical features that make up the health of the individual. In this work, we use utilities as abstracted microservices to represent the dimensions of health.
Representing the general state space of health. The state space of health represents all the possibilities that can exist for human health and provides a foundation map base layer that allows embedding of other layers.
Structuring the model of inputs to the health state. Each moment in life causes some small change in the health state of the individual. Capturing these moments and translating them to inputs into the health state give the next time iteration of the health state.
Integration of domain knowledge and data-driven approaches. In order for the estimation and modelling to be done in an understandable way, depending on a single top-down or bottom-up approach will not suffice. Each has advantages and disadvantages. In this work, we use a combinatorial generalization artificial intelligence technique of graph network blocks (GNB) to meld the two approaches together.
The personalized concepts include, but are not limited to:
Creating a personal health state space relevant to the individual. The true health state space that is reachable for a single person is a subset of the general state space. Multiple factors such as genetics and age, carve out the state space for the individual.
Current health state of the individual within their personal state space. Knowing the current state is the primary objective of this dissertation. Using combinatorial generalization, we can establish a global set of attributes to give a current state estimate of the individual. Computing is done by instantiating a graph of an individual’s utility and biological microservices, and estimating how the microservices change. These microservices in aggregate determine the global set of health state attributes.
Predicting the trajectory of the state at future time points with a personal model. By using the GNB, we can simulate future time points of inputs and produce their outputs as the predicted future health state.
Learning the input effect on a given state for a particular individual, editing the personal model. Given a large quantity of data produced by an individual, we use modern learning techniques to produce a model at the N=1 level, allowing us to more accurately model. We observe how inputs to a node in the graph produce results in the real world setting by modifying domain knowledge-based connections to suit a particular person.
Given a desired direction or goal, reducing the state space dimensions and presenting the current state in the context of the user intent. People interact with their health at a high level of abstraction and also have abstract goals. By decomposing this level of user interaction into the relevant dimensions, we can provide a user interface to understand their health state.
Providing a structure for health navigation. By understanding what inputs produce certain state changes in the individual, we present a method by which perpetual planning, used to guide an individual to alter their current health state towards their desired state. The above goal decomposition guides which inputs are most relevant and useful for the individual and presents each moment as a cybernetic control loop for the navigation system to control each step.
5 Thesis Outline
Chapter 2 introduces the driving concepts of cybernetics and navigation for health computing and the flow by which the health state of each individual is dynamically changing. It reviews the literature to define a comprehensive view of “health,” how this health is continually changing, and how certain design elements are essential to produce continuous personal state estimation. Chapter 3 dives into a specific literature review of sensing, estimation, and modeling techniques used in this work. It concludes by presenting the scope of techniques for this dissertation. Chapter 4 presents the HSE framework through the detailed assembly of the design requirements into a cohesive system. Chapter 5 describes the experiments that illustrate HSE at an individual scale using multi-modal data and knowledge integration. Chapter 6 discusses the application of HSE by describing the methods of personal health navigation systems and cybernetics. Chapter 7 discusses the future opportunities in this field and related fields of work and concludes this dissertation.
6 Cybernetics: Inspiration for this Work
In the simplest terms, cybernetics is about setting goals and devising action sequences to accomplish and maintain those goals in the presence of noise and disturbances. The Greek origins refer to the ‘art of steering’, and the term was introduced into the literature by Norbert Wiener, a mathematician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Wiener1962CyberneticsMachine. His seminal publication “Cybernetics, Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine” described what we know today as control theory for dynamic systems. Cybernetic principles are a universal mathematical theme in both natural and artificial machines. The availability of sensors that estimate the system state from observation enables communication and control. This state is perpetually compared to the goal state so the system can perform the best actions to maintain the desired goal state. In parallel, biological science also discovered control mechanisms as “homeostasis” via a series of physiology scientists, including Claude Bernard, Walter Cannon, and Joseph Barcroft Gordon.2016AnatomyPhysiology. Homeostasis referred to the stable internal environment at any given moment. It was first described in French literature originally in 1854 as milieu intérieur by Claude Bernard in BernardC.TransHoffHEGuilleminR1974LecturesPlants.. Norbert Wiener’s work in cybernetics generalized these principles beyond biology. There are four fundamental principles in connecting the information from the physical world to the virtual “cyber” world, as shown in Figure 7.
The mathematical model at the core of classic cybernetic systems theory states that:
Where X, U, and Y
are the system true state, inputs, and measured output vectors respectively.A, B, C, and D are matrices that provide the appropriate transformation of these variables at a given time k. The state system describes human health. The previous state and the inputs into the system play a role in determining health at time k+1. Inputs into the human cybernetic system are anything that changes gene expression or physical actions in the body (from molecular interactions to coarse action). Thus a person is continuously exposed to these inputs. The inputs beyond the control of an individual are external disturbances, and the rest are controllable inputs u. The true health state of an individual at a time k is represented by X. The health state is difficult to obtain and is always estimated. What we do get are the observable output variables. The state estimation challenge is in interpreting the observable data to understand the true underlying state. If we solely focus on this, the challenge of state estimation is in matrix C, with observable components as Y and our unknown state as X. This representation is visualized in Figure 8.
Two subsets of inputs determine the true health state of an individual. The first set of inputs is beyond the control of the individual, such as circumstances of where an individual is born and how they are raised, the genetic composition and biological processes occurring within the body, resources available, and the ambient environment. These inputs are usually not within the ability of an individual to manipulate. We consider these as noise or disturbances to the system, as shown in Figure 8 The other significant subset of inputs into the system that determines health is traditionally known as “modifiable risk factors.” Modifiable refers to an ability to decide the control input for the individual. This usually encompasses every decision moment the person lives but can extend to any situation in which a person has a choice (i.e., choosing to take a medication, buying a home in a particular neighborhood). Lifestyle modifications particularly are currently seen as the most promising approach for inputs that lead to healthier living Ioannidis2019NeglectingScience. This is how we will model controllable inputs in the above equation as u.
“No one notices when things go right.” This simple homily underlies the fact that 95 percent of the US healthcare economy is for direct medical care, and only 5 percent for health improvement Bortz2005BiologicalHealth. This allocation of resources occurs due to the ongoing challenge of estimating the health state of individuals who seem to be healthy. The challenges arise due to 1) poor sensing ability to develop adverse outcomes with current human perception and methods, and 2) the long lead time for developing chronic disease. By the time current clinical measurements such as cholesterol, blood pressure, or glucose metabolism are beyond the normal range, the user has already been in a dysfunctional health state for quite some time. Clinical researchers refer to this as the prodromal state. Capturing the change in health state always (before significant dysfunction begins) is paramount to keeping people healthy states and preventing them from slipping into a diseased state.
The target of this thesis work aims at structuring data and knowledge so we can have continuous HSE. It is essential to consider the representation of the system state, as all computing components of the loop depend on this representation. In general, representation of the state and state space in addition to searching through this state space are two key fundamental challenges in any intelligent system Zadeh2008Linear-. In simple control systems such as thermostats or even complex systems such as military jets, the representation of the system is quite well understood Dorf2000ModernEDITION. A thorough investigation of defining what the true health state is must be the first step towards building a robust and universal computational health state representation.
7 Defining Health
There is a multitude of definitions of health. We will first review two general approaches to health, the first being continuous versus classification approaches and the second being objective and subjective approaches. Following this, we take the various lenses of health definitions and amalgamate central principles of each. These lenses include biological, environmental, functional, and perceptual views on defining health. In order to build a comprehensive and robust definition of health, we must consider all aspects for a complete understanding. This work will primarily focus on the integration of these definitions into a single unified approach at the individual level definition of health.
Classification vs Continuum
Before 1948, the WHO defined health as the absence of disease or infirmity World1946PreambleConstitution
. The original definition indicated that health is static or unilateral (disease or no disease). This method is a classification approach for having a definitive understanding of health. Medical systems and approaches in modern-day continue to classify health based on disease, conditions, and various metrics to define the state of one’s health. For example, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and heart failure are all cardiovascular diseases that are considered diseases based on a range or threshold. These thresholds are recorded in the International Classification for Disease, which is used as the universal basis for the health fieldOrganization2004InternationalProblems. It has the word classification in the middle of the name. If an individual does not meet the threshold, they do not have the disease. This has large implications. As an example, the American Heart Association formed ranges for cardiovascular risk, and medical professionals take into consideration ranges to determine if an individual is normal, elevated, or at risk, as shown in the blood pressure diagram in Figure 9. The thresholds are usually pre-determined for the entire population, assuming in the model that each person is identical to another and represented by a static system.
On the other hand, some classification approaches rely on the presence or absence of an attribute. A few examples include how an individual can either be positive or negative for an infection, have had a pregnancy or not, has an artificial limb or not, or has a chromosomal set of XX or XY. In summary, the classification approach to health is a combination of two subsets, the first subset of classifications use thresholds, and a second subset is similar to Boolean or categorical attributes Warshall1962AMatrices.
In 1948, the WHO updated the definition of health to encompass health as a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being” World1946PreambleConstitution. This shifted the thought towards defining health on a spectrum beyond disease and takes into consideration the full physical, mental, and social state of an individual. The WHO did not go further to quantitatively define what this means. In 1972, a physician named John Travis proposed a concept of health, referred to as the “illness-wellness continuum,” which states that a medical approach relying on the presence or absence of disease to demonstrate health is insufficient Travis2004WellnessVitality. This concept introduces the idea that an individual falls somewhere on the spectrum of dysfunction and wellness. Where they are at each moment would be their health state on this single axis. The states in which dysfunction is perceivable is reflected by signs, symptoms, and disability. This approach to health is the “health continuum,” also described in chapter 1 Figure 2. The health continuum implies that individuals would wish to strive for a higher level of optimal living through the means of health, not just as a unilateral classification of being labeled with a disease. This modern outlook of health acknowledges its dynamic nature and subject to constant change within an axis of illness and wellness. “Both health and illness are dynamic processes, and each person is located on a graduated scale or continuous spectrum (continuum) ranging from wellness and optimal functioning in every aspect of one’s life, at one end, to illness culminating in death, at the other” Svalastog2017ConceptsSociety. However, it is important to note that the continuum may be interpreted as static if observing a single point in time or location within the spectrum. Regardless, this concept proposes a single dimension concept of state and paves the way for a continuous and quantitative approach.
Clinically, resting blood pressure illustrates the continuum approach. People are unable to feel the biological change as it happens over time, and thus do not even know they are being affected. Second, the blood pressures vary due to a complex impact from both daily actions and environmental exposures, not just a single source or pathogen. Third, these diseases are not truly categorical in nature but are declines in physiologic function over time. In the example of hypertension, the medical practice uses cutoff thresholds to decide when to change the labeled blood pressure status of an individual, when in reality, the average pressure is increasing over time, as shown in Figure 9. The thresholds provide a basic region mapping of the blood pressure health state, but this does is not based on a precise model for each individual, instead of a population model.
Objective vs Subjective
In the literature, health has an expanded definition through the introduction of objective and subjective components. Objective components are quantifiable and externally visible, and subjective components are within an individual’s internal state of mind. The objective states have four components: the biological ability to exist, the environmental impact and handling of this impact on an individual, and the ability or capacity to function. The subjective component generally is understood through the individual’s perception of their quality of life.
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Various reports integrate objective and subjective components as a critical part of defining the scope of health:
a) Two prominent figures had established definitions of health used in modern medicine today. Hippocrates of the fifth century BCE, considered to be the “Father of Modern Medicine,” established the relationship between environmental and personal cleanliness and the origin of disease. He had classified health based on disease, resulting from internal physical imbalances. In the Roman Empire, Galen expanded on Hippocrates’s definition by stating that bodily fluids also determined temperament and personality, Badash2017RedefiningCare. These combined outlined health as the idea of physical, environmental, and behavioral factors.
b) The updated WHO definition to expand the realm of health beyond disease and include mental and social well-being: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” World1946PreambleConstitution.
c) The 1974 Lalonde Report from Canada introduces the concept of “health field concept,” in which identified determinants of health is through lifestyle (personal decisions), environment, human biology (all components of the body influenced by genetics), and health care systems Glouberman2003EvolutionCanada.
d) The Croatian Medical Journal describes health as three types: 1) absence of disease, 2) a state allowing the individual to cope with demands of daily life adequately, and 3) a state of balance, an equilibrium that an individual has establishes within himself and between himself and his social and physical environment Sartorius2006ThePromotion.
e) The Center for Educational Development Health (CEDH) at Boston University and the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine Foundation (ATPMF) define health as a state characterized by anatomic integrity, including “performing personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biological and social stress; a feeling of well-being; and a freedom from the risk of disease and untimely death” Stokes1982DefinitionMedicine. Furthermore, the health status estimates of individual’s health from “one or more anatomic, functional, adaptive, and subjective indices.”
f) A qualitative study by Simon et al. understands health through an individual’s self-assessment, which is largely linked to one’s physical health, functional capacity, health behavior, and other psychological components. Health also encompasses other aspects including health comparison, health transcendence, externally focused, non-reflective, social role activities, and social relationships Simon2005HowHealth.
g) U.S. Institute of Medicine Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice, and Policy in Washington, D.C. describes the need to integrate all the above approaches. “Acceptance of the fact that stress is linked to cardiovascular disease or to other health problems has become commonplace. However, research also reveals many reciprocal links among the central nervous system, which recognizes and records experiences; the endocrine system, which produces hormones that govern many body functions; and the immune system, which organizes responses to infections and other challenges.” The Committee illustrates how perception and biological health are tightly coupled, hence the call for an integrative approach to defining health InstituteofMedicineUSCommitteeonHealthand2001IndividualsInterventions.
The above approaches are compared in Figure 1. In the following sections within this chapter, we will first explore the individual components of objective health in biological, environmental, functional aspects. The subjective and social components of health will be discussed as a perceptual component. It is also important to note that there are large health systems that are part of the ecosystem that contributes to health for the individual.
Biological health is the sustenance of life through the homeostasis of natural systems. Working biological health supports the basic living functions of life. The literature consensus of what these tenets are: Organization of Structure, Metabolism, Homeostasis, Growth, Reproduction, Response to Stimuli, and Evolution. The only main contention in general literature of living biology is in the case of viruses. Viruses do not conduct their metabolism and thus do not maintain any homeostatic state. They also cannot reproduce on their own.
Human biological health has been quantified by looking at lifespan or by the calculation of healthy aging and life expectancy Brussow2013WhatHealth. The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study provides quantifiable health metrics for calculating healthy life expectancy. Lozano et al. estimated life tables and annual number of death for 187 countries from 1970 to 2010. The estimation included number and rate of deaths by age and sex to determine the burden of disease in order to constrain estimates of cause-specific mortality Lozano2012Global2010. A look at lifespan is only a primary attribute of biological existence. The biological understanding of a human is understood more deeply by the genetic composition and biological processes occurring within the body. Illness or disease negatively impacts the overall homeostasis of biological processes and therefore reduces the lifespan.
With stress from its surroundings, an individual must remain stable internally for its biological success. This stress is the particular reason behind the “response to stimuli” factor of biological health. “Under normal conditions, the external environment changes constantly in an unpredictable manner. In order to survive and to continue to function effectively the organism must make adaptive responses to the modifications. It must, as well as possible, repair destructive tissue damage and restore its own internal environment” Dubos1987MirageChange. The ability to adapt and hold resilience is therefore critical for survival when introduced to external stresses or threats, such as disease. Biological health can, therefore, include the definition as “the perfect, continuing adjustment of an organism within its biology to its environment” Wylie1970TheDisease..
Biological health operates through the complicated yet harmonious interaction of non-living molecules to maintain the steady-state of living functions. A narrow slice of this complex interaction network can be visualized through the basic chart of metabolism, as seen in Figure 10. The health of this network to sustain itself in a stable state can be considered the generalized approach to biological health. A full biological health state framework would require a system that can incorporate all the abstraction levels from atomic to the whole organism, as shown in Figure 10, and the ability for computation at any level of choice.
Functional health is defined as the performance capacity to provide a service or utility. This definition is applies to any abstraction level on the biological spectrum. At a whole human level, the function may be how well a person can run. At an organ level, the function can be how well the heart circulates blood, and at a molecular level, it may be how well a cell regulates a specific hormone such as insulin. Functional health assumes that health is a resource that allows individuals to be able to use their bodies and minds to perform specific tasks. The function abstracts away biology from health. A biological bone and a titanium bone both provide a service of structure to the body. A natural pancreas and artificial digital pancreas both provide a service of glucose regulation. A biological sinoatrial node in the heart and an electronic pacemaker both provide heartbeat regulation as a service. Functional health fully encompasses biological health, but can extend far beyond biological systems for defining health.
Aristotle’s “Four Causes” is a realm of thought that explores the reason for existence Falcon2006AristotleCausality. This concept can help answer “why” our biological health truly matters. In Aristotle’s telos philosophy, the end goal or purpose of anything is what function comes about. We can use this in making a parallel to how health is ultimately a utility function. Figure 11 visually describes his classical example of the “cause” of a table. Material cause refers to the physical matter that makes an object. Wood makes up a table, and molecules make up a human. Formal cause refers to the design of an entity. A table may have a simple design, and a human has an intricate design of interacting parts. Efficient cause refers to how an object comes into existence. Carpentry makes the table and reproduction and cell growth from a single cell (zygote) makes up a human. Final cause, also known as telos, refers to the reason for existence. A table exists to dine upon, and a human exists to exhibit certain capacities such as movement and thinking.
Both Aristotle and modern-day organizations, like WHO, have contributed to the evolution of defining health. The WHO identified health as a “resource for everyday life, not the objective of living.“ Health includes social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities. in the first International Conference for Health Promotion in 1986 Williamson2009HealthConceptualization Furthermore, it encompasses “the ability to lead a socially and economically productive life.” Health is also viewed as the ability to perform valued social roles, emphasizing functional views and the concept of health to include personal beliefs and values by a society Stokes1982DefinitionMedicine. This means that a loss of a leg is grieved just as much because this means a loss of mobility, and thus, a loss of self. If an individual were to receive a prosthetic for a leg as a replacement, the mobility would be maintained and fully functional. However, the biological basis would alter to a mechanical one. The same can be said for porcelain teeth-replacing biological teeth for cutting food. However, to an individual, there is functional value due to the mobility or cutting and, thus, would no longer be a loss of self.
While the maximum lifespan may have increased, there may not be enough emphasis on the healthspan of the population. While there is a longer lifespan by reduction of child mortality rates, elimination of diseases through modern medicine, the human biological design is not for long-term use (i.e., maintaining healthy functioning knees, heart) Olshansky2018FromHealthspan. This increased lifespan now becomes an issue of function; to address the functional component there must be an emphasis on the healthspan and the quality of life, not just the length. The WHO has quantified the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) as one lost year of healthy life due to disability or poor health Organization2014WHODALY. DALYs for a disease or health condition are calculated as the sum of the Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature mortality in the population and the Years Lost due to Disability (YLD) for people living with the health condition or its consequences. This metric indicates that disability or poor health is a loss of function that ultimately leads to a shorter lifespan. Individuals may also define themselves as healthy because they are functioning as well as expected in their age and gender group of the general population. Functional health is, therefore, interwoven with perceptual health.
With living comes the capability to respond to stressful situations. There is a functional capacity to cope and be resilient to the demands of daily living Sartorius2006ThePromotion. From a cybernetic perspective, this is the stability of the system to perturbation to the external environment. The diminishing function of an individual in their ability to perform tasks that they would have otherwise been able to can be directly related to disease or illness, much of which can be caused by the surroundings.
Environmental health encompasses external factors outside of an individual that impact the state within the individual. The environment plays a significant role in the exposures that an individual has over time, and thus is inevitably a major component of one’s health. Dubois explains that “health and happiness cannot be absolute and permanent values, however careful the social and medical planning. Evolutionary fitness requires never-ending efforts of adaptation to the total environment, which is ever-changing” Tait1982DUBOSHEALTH. Because of this continuous change in an individual’s environment, this theory supports the health continuum method in which health is dynamic. While the environment is continually changing, and thus human health is continually changing, humans attempt to create equilibrium within themselves and the social and physical environment via self-maintenance systems Sartorius2006ThePromotion. This theory supports that health relies on an adaptation mechanism to the external environment to produce homeostasis at various layers of biology and function.
The “Health Grid Model” was developed by Dunn et al. to show how external factors impact the quality of life DUNN1959High-levelSociety.. The graph below shows peak performance as an optimal state of health based on the individual’s age and makeup but highly linked to a favorable and unfavorable environment. Dunn called for a more “integrated approach to human health” via the integration of environmental factors. There may be favorable and unfavorable environments that may positively and negatively impact health. Individuals may be exposed to various risk factors and inputs to their health through the environment (i.e., pollution, water sanitation, chemicals, occupational risks, climate change, radiation, agricultural practices). Individuals may also have exposures to external risk factors through their social environment (i.e., family, friends, society, decisions based on social circumstances). The social environment that an individual surrounds themselves with has a significant impact on daily lifestyle factors, for example, food choices and physical activities.
Understanding an individual’s environment furthermore gives the livability of the location of how healthy a particular area may be for the individual. The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Where-to-be-born Index and Mercer’s Quality of Living reports are measuring the livability of a given city or nation Mercer2020QualityMercer; Economist2005Quality-of-life1. This environmental component is a combination of subjective measurements such as life satisfaction surveys and objective determinants such as divorce rates, safety, and infrastructure. These studies review the livability for populations at large but directly links to predicting an individual’s health state based on a chosen environment. A part of this local environment includes any system built in regards to health.
Systems health is the overarching structure for providing health to individuals at a population level. Systems for providing health services largely contribute to the outcome of health for individuals. The effectiveness of these systems is tracked by reviewing populations at large. Health systems play an economic role in providing a positive return to individuals. Williamson et al. conceptualize health as a type of capital that invested in many individuals and institutions for positive health returns that reflect higher individual capacity. Health cannot be exchanged or sold for goods and services. Instead, “as a type of capital, health is a stock of biopsychosocial resources that people can draw on to participate in society” Williamson2009HealthConceptualization. A modern approach to health, such as value-based healthcare, puts what patients value at the center of healthcare. It helps ensure that they receive the care that can provide them with outcomes they think are essential and that limited resources are focused on high-value interventions. In order to do this, there is a need for flexible definitions of health, personalized and tailored to patient values Gentry2017DefiningSystems. Another system approach that is becoming more prevalent is the continuum of care. The continuum f care concept involves an integrated system that guides and tracks a patient over time through a comprehensive array of health services spanning all levels of intensity of care. The array of services includes promotion, prevention, treatment, and recovery as an individual goes through the process of receiving healthcare services Sagner2017TheHealthspan. While systems are of relevance in defining health, the economic and population level of health will not be part of the scope of this work. Instead, the focus will be on computing how a system may impact an individual as part of their environment.
Perceptual health is an individual’s outlook on their health state and judgment of their quality of life. The view of one’s self has become a large component of subjective determinants of health, including one’s emotional state, social connectedness, intellectual stimulation, self-awareness, and development of lifestyle behaviors. With perception is an individual’s ability to think and feel in the way of good health, as understood by their internal state. In addition to “anatomic, functional and adaptive dimensions, much of health is simply about feeling good” Stokes1982DefinitionMedicine.
Health is of relevance to the individual concerning their defined goals and value in living. Aristotle’s Telos philosophy indicates there is an end or purpose, in “teleology” or the study of purpose within biology. Telos, which means “end”, “purpose” or “goal” as shown in Figure 11. Dubois in the Mirage of Health has also defined “good health as the condition best suited for each individual to reach his or her personal and social goals” Tait1982DUBOSHEALTH. The concept of personalized goals and values in living becomes critical to the state of health because it links to how an individual perceives the state of their life. Individuals act and function in alignment with their own values. Stokes has described Health as with the incorporation of the “ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles” and dealing with psychological and social stress Stokes1982DefinitionMedicine.
Kimball et al. at the University of Michigan, along with prominent thought leaders such as Janet Yellen and Daniel Kahneman, put together a concept of Utility and Happiness where they connect how the perception of living happily relates to the utility for the individual Kimball2006UtilityHappiness. They have separated short-term happiness as “elation” due to relative change in utility and long-run happiness as the “baseline mood” for the utility. Thaler’s work in connecting behavioral psychology with economics shows how the “baseline mood” (i.e., influenced by sleep, exercise, eating habits, genes, time with friends) is linked to the true health utility Kimball2006UtilityHappiness. Both of these examples show how the quality of life is related to psychology bridged with economic principles of utility to an individual.
Increasingly described in the literature are understanding one’s self, motivations, and goals as a foundation for health. The health continuum also highlights that awareness of self, education, self-growth, and adopting healthy lifestyles are critical in moving towards the wellness end of the spectrum and reaching a more optimal level of health. In addition to values, self-perception is another measure for differentiating a healthy state from a diseased state and how this can be dependent on an individual’s outlook on the situation and how they feel internally (or subjective well-being) Bowling2005MeasuringHealth. Physical and psychological “wellness” of an individual plays a role in the health continuum in the constant strive for improvement. The domains of wellness can include social (lifestyle behaviors), emotional (stress, resilience), physical (activities), spiritual (meaning, purpose), occupational, intellectual components Institute2018FraminghamNHLBI. The combination of these domains creates a wellness state that incorporates both the mind and the body.
Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” indicate that humans are built upon physiologic needs as a baseline, but are ultimately striving for self-actualization. This approach sees physiologic needs as the core need to be satisfied before needing safety, love/belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. This work is quite prevalent in the literature in psychological sciences.
The Iceberg model of health and illness, as presented by Travis in the illness-wellness continuum Travis2004WellnessVitality, describes the state of health to be built upon the foundation of self-understanding, psychological motivations, and lifestyle and behavior. For both Travis and Maslow, the presentation of health state regards perceptual components as integral considerations that layer on top of high-functioning biological machinery. In this perspective, biological health directly impacts the perceptual health. On the flip side, perceptual health can directly impact biological health. As shown in Figure 14, mental states directly impact the biological components of the entire rest of the body. Thus, there is a need to build a network representation of these two views with a bi-directional relationship. The body impacts the mind, and the mind impacts the body.
We can also quantify the perception of how an individual perceives themselves and their quality of life (QoL). QoL is a term for the quality of various life domains and is measured as a standard that considers what a good life is for an individual. Many of the factors determining the quality of life may be driven by values and goals and encompassing of emotional, physical, and social well-being. The factors ultimately determine one’s life satisfaction or how an individual feels about his or her life. Measurements can be seen globally in the World Happiness Report of 2019, which explores how happy citizens consider themselves to be, which directly impacts their emotional and social well-being.
Ultimately, all the above definitions of health mention important components of health for an individual. We must consider these definitions in a generalized computing framework for computing the health state. These components are also highly interdependent, and this must be clear in the representation. The next phase of research describes how we can pull these components together in a common framework.
7.6 Integrating a Holistic Approach
As an individual, we want to consider all aspects of our health when making life choices, a holistic approach. For this reason, this thesis uses an integrated approach to the definition of health by integrating the four components as described previously: biological, environmental (including systems), functional, and perceptual. All four components contribute to the quality of living and a total health state computing framework. We will utilize the approach of the health continuum view and recognize that health is evolving and dynamic by nature on this continuum. This method still allows for classification approaches through thresholds and categories. There is also a nesting of various layers that build a single individual model. Nesting may occur for various domains such as biology, as shown in Figure 10. Depending on the abstraction level from a molecular level to a whole person level, various connected components rely on the functioning of the lower-level components. Measurements may come at various layers of abstraction, and the user or domain expert such as a doctor or intelligent agent may want to perturb or interact at a particular abstraction layer. A holistic model must accommodate this ability to zoom in and out in a fluid manner. Coupling these concepts also requires an understanding of what causal orientation they are related to each other in the real world. The dissertation goal is to bring all components of defining health together holistically in order to best estimate the health state. In the next section, we go into the depth of how this holistic approach translates into detailed design requirements.
8 Design Requirements for Health State Estimation
After considering the nature of different health definitions in this chapter, and the emerging frontiers in chapter one, we can establish the following design principles for a health estimation framework that can support a variety of complex applications. We will describe these requirements below.
Personalized Modeling. To predict the future, provide guidance, and understand the preferences and particularities of an individual, researchers must build personal models. These models, which establish the premise that each individual is a unique system, are needed to best estimate the user’s health state and how various inputs uniquely move them in the state space. Models are accessed for state estimation or providing guidance. The personal model can build knowledge and predict many aspects of an individual’s life, such as how an individual reacts to different stimuli under specific conditions or physiological changes from an intervention. To model a person, a combination of long and short term information must interact. Long-term models of an individual can come from the genome or the history of event patterns and behavior. Biological or high-resolution continuous sensors can capture short-term models. These models are not static; they continuously change with an individual’s age, life events, and other life parameters, which makes model-building a dynamic and causal understanding process. Models must have a general representation that can at least address the following health attributes:
Physiologic function. Dynamic health attributes include biological health, such as organ function and capacity (CRF, bone strength, and metabolism). Models may have various time and size levels in terms of detail, depending on the application. Short-term models can already predict how electrical activity in the heart may produce arrhythmia (such as in Figure 4 while a long term model may predict the impact of long-term lifestyle habits on developing atherosclerosis. Cellular or gross organ-level processes can be modeled separately or in combination, as shown in Figure 10. These functions constantly change based on daily factors that include sleep, nutrition, medication, or stress.
Psychological function. Extrapolating and modeling mental health will be a complex challenge that requires advanced sensing mechanisms such as affective computing. Mental health components could include various time resolutions of interest, such as overall mental stability or minute-by-minute affect analysis. Evaluating risks for erroneous modeling before field deployment will be essential for the users’ safety. Understanding user preferences, influences, and motivations will be essential to close the loop when humans are involved as actuators in a participatory approach. The system uses this information to tailor guidance in a way that makes a healthy lifestyle pleasurable and convenient, enhancing the quality of life. For effective modeling, irrational behavior, social tendencies, and situations in which short term pleasure overrides long-term goals must be included. Risky behaviors may warrant preventive help to reduce harmful events such as drunk driving.
Risk. Researchers can model risk assessment for reversible and irreversible physiologic dysfunction, undesired events, or regions of the health state space a person wishes to avoid. Disease risk refers to the health state entering an undesirable region of the state space. An example would be the chance that an individual would develop metabolic syndrome, a condition that medical professionals could reverse with an early-stage intervention. Damage risk refers to the risk in which an individual is negatively permanently altered. An example of this would be the likelihood of metabolic syndrome turning into type 1 diabetes, resulting in permanent pancreatic damage. Risk modeling will also include behavior and mental condition models to understand the propensity for self-harm, accidents, or harm to others, as mentioned previously in the psychological function section. For the greatest value, we must prioritize resources and investments based on evaluating the likelihood and consequence of combined risks. Risk models of the individual are directly related to prediction and prevention.
The personal model is essentially a virtual twin of the individual, which allows for modeling the current and future state of the person in various aspects of their biology and psychology. The model’s state space must be compatible with continuum and classification approaches.
Predictive and Preventive Capability. The above model should be able to simulate what the health state will be at various future time points. Given a set of chosen inputs, we can test various scenarios to perturb the health state model to see how the current state changes. These simulations should be able to help predict a trajectory path to compare which input set would produce the most desirable health state for the user. A prediction that falls in an undesirable region can advise preventive actions to steer the state away from the region.
Precision through Understanding and Learning. A health estimation framework inherently will have errors in the outputs that may not be compared to a ground truth measurable factor, making it challenging to compare various models and judge performance of the model, state estimation, and predictions. The system must have a method by which to give an estimated error range so the user or computer can understand the quality of the estimation. Precision should improve in the model and estimation with increasing information. The two main approaches for this would be bottom-up data-driven methods and top-down knowledge-driven methods.
Participation with User. The system must be able to interact with various types of users. These users include the individual themselves, any healthcare professionals, domain and research experts in any respective field, or other computing clients that access the health state for further services provided to the user. Facilitated human interaction with the framework requires representation in a tangible human-understandable form to bridge the gap between the physical and cyber worlds. The HCI should have easy to understand interfaces, a simple way to query the health state and model, and explainable to the human. Developers that wish to create software using the health state and personal model should have secure yet easy access to Software Development Kits (SDK) that can create such HCI and services.
Encompass Holistic Definition of Health. As we explored above, there are various lenses and dimensions all part of a total health state for an individual. Any complete HSE framework must be able to include these lenses. Biological mechanisms give rise to functional and perceptual experiences and how the environment and systems impact this. Systems can be clumped as part of the environment. Based on the work presented by Kimball et al., we can also view perception through a utility lens, and thus can model this as a functional component of health. Thus, the requirements for the holistic definition must include the biological, functional, and environmental aspects.
Causal and Explainable. Given a large number of connections, many of these may be spurious or artifacts of data. Understanding why something is connected and characterizing its true effect is key for a high-quality system. For trust by users, scientists, health experts, and computation outcomes, this explainable aspect is also essential. Many modern artificial intelligence techniques lack in this requirement Gunning2017Explainablexai.
. Current approaches in using data and machine learning to estimate health are falling short due to their non-understandable black-box nature. Knowing why an individual has a certain health status will be paramount for explaining why a recommendation or treatment is best. Purely data-driven methods can be components in a large system but will have a difficult time explaining the reason for the classification without the incorporation of relevant domain knowledge.
Domain Knowledge Integration. The best source of understanding causal relationships and connectedness rests within the vast array of domain knowledge already in the literature. Leveraging this domain knowledge is essential, especially as a cold start, to build an explainable system. Any new domain knowledge discovered should also have the ability to integrate. Hard-wiring the domain knowledge is thus not an option. Domain knowledge also is organized at various levels of study (molecular to societal sciences), and the best approach would be to take advantage of the vast knowledge in all these layers.
Zoom Fluidly Between Abstraction Layers. As mentioned in the previous design requirement, the ability to zoom in and out of abstraction layers should be part of the system. This gives domain knowledge various entry points to participate in the framework and allows for the user or domain expert to understand a layer of interest. Looking at Figure 10, the framework should allow jumping between any box layer of interest, while still preserving the connectivity.
Flexible and Modular Architecture. Because health can be abstracted away from biology through the functional lens, the framework must allow for flexibility through a modular approach. Imagine a patient who receives a kidney transplant. This new kidney has a whole new set of genetics and biology from the patient’s original kidney. If the kidney is replaced with a mechanical kidney, this would have an entirely different operational structure. A flexible approach would allow the appropriate module, which modeled the kidney, to swap out for the current one. This ensures that no matter how technology adapts and situations change, the framework continues to be robust for the future.
Diverse Data Fusion and Transformation. In addition to taking advantage of domain knowledge of all abstraction layers, the system should be able to take advantage of any data produced about the individual. This could include a vast array of sources, types, and frequencies of data and event streams. Any type of data should be able to get processed in a way that is then useful to update the health state or improve the model. By acquiring data from different types of sensors, we can create a more precise understanding of how to model the individual health state. This process needs to collect, aggregate, and process heterogeneous data from multiple sources to infuse into the model. Data transformation methods are needed to convert data to a representation that is suitable for digestion into the personal health model framework.
Perpetually Updating. As pointed several times in the last two chapters, the health state is in a dynamic flux. With data and domain knowledge, the system needs to continually update the health state of an individual regardless of the situation to give the current state. Similar to how a GPS is always refreshing its alignment with the signal satellites. As an example, the highest performance GPS receivers can update at 50 Hertz (1 Hertz = 1 cycle per second). For the health state, various applications will require a minimum update rate in order to perform.
Using these above requirements for building a state estimation framework, we will dive into the current day literature to see how the research community is approaching these requirements. We will review the various methods for collecting data, approaching state estimation, and constructing a model for individual health.
9 Health Data Acquisition
To begin any endeavor in estimation, we must first gather measurements in the real world that we can use towards computing the estimate. These measurements are gathered through a sensor. Sensors bridge the computing world with the physical world, as shown in Figure 7. The cost and accuracy of sensing mechanisms vary, so data stream continuity and availability will always be different depending on the modality. For example, a wearable heart-rate monitor is an inexpensive and continuous way to measure heart rate but will be less insightful than cardiac perfusion testing with a computerized tomography scanner to evaluate heart attack risk or tissue oxygen delivery. Intuitively, an estimation system that can ingest the most types of data streams will perform better due to capturing a more well-rounded picture of a given situation. This highlights the need for the estimation framework to have a versatile ability to ingest data types. In order to ensure the constructed estimation framework best meets this need, we will review a wide variety of literature demonstrating how personal health data can be acquired through sensors, as summarized in Figure 15.
9.1 Self Insight
The most primitive and natural sensor is the person’s biological signals and cognition. Two sets of signals influence our understanding of our own mental and physical health. First, sensory organs capture sensory signals about the world external to our skin through sight, hearing, touch (including sensory pain, temperature, texture), taste, and smell. These natural sensors measure various attributes to understand the individual’s physical environment or directly perceivable attributes. Internal to our skin, we then use internal cognizance to make interpretations about the external signals and integrate them with signals about our biology. The interpretation occurs through feelings of perceived pain, gut motility, energy, proprioception, and mood, to name a few. Humans use both these abilities to understand their health state and how their environment is impacting them. The ways our natural biological sensors unify, store, quantify, and use these data are not easily compatible with modern computing. Tedious methods that do not capture data continuously, such as questionnaires and surveys, are used to capture these signals in most scientific fields that study these signals. We go over traditional and emerging techniques for extracting self-insight computationally.
Sensory Organs capture data streams (sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste) that give us the ability to garner information about the external world. There are several mechanisms to understand insight computationally, capturing a human’s experience with its outside world. These sensors mimic and measure human sensory experience. Here we review sensors developed to mimic the body’s unimpaired natural functionality.
Concerning touch, tactile gloves serve as pressure sensors applied by the hand. High-resolution pressure sensing and mapping enable understanding of human movements, comfort, and ergonomics through visual feedback of hand interactions Patents2002FlexibleSensor. Electronic instruments, including the electronic tongue, measure and compare tastes. These instruments can detect an array of dissolved organic and inorganic compounds like the human taste receptors via reactions for each sensor. They generate electric signals as potentiometric variations, to relate the signal strength to the concentration of these molecules Maezawa2008SomatosensoryElectrodes. Microphones can easily capture the audio experiences of an individual and are ubiquitous in today’s world through mobile phones, computers, wearables, and IoT devices. Cameras and videos provide visual representations of what a human sees. Google Glass and Snap Glasses are both wearable cameras that are worn as a pair of glasses but can record or observe all the information that an individual sees directlyMuensterer2014GoogleStudy. Lifelogging cameras have thus been in research for several years now Wolf2014Lifelogging:Camera. An example of cameras understanding human perception includes the three-dimensional gesture recognition vision systems in which video of the user’s gestures are understood for certain meaning and actions Lv2014Hand-freeGlass. These sensory signals give us detailed information about our experiences. Understanding experiences is one set of clues towards HSE. For example, if an event is relaxing, it may impact the health state positively versus a stressful event impacting the state negatively.
Perception and Internal Cognizance Experiences combined with internal signals that interpret health is another avenue by which to collect data about the individual. The self-perception theory indicates that people will know their emotions, attitudes, and other internal states based on their own understanding of their behavior and the circumstances at hand. “If these signals are weak or non-interpretable, the individual becomes an observer and must rely on cues to understand their inner state” Bem1972Self-PerceptionTheory. This theory implies that internal sensory signals are learned and understood from making interpretations about their behavioral and physical circumstances.
Furthermore, our internal receptors and neurons enable us to comprehend our sense of position and movement. Proprioception is the sense of position and movement of the limbs, occurring by activity in sensory neurons located in the skin, muscles, and joint tissues. Proprioceptors (sensory receptors) play a pivotal roleGrigg1994PeripheralProprioception. As these receptors are sensitive to both tension and pressure, they relay information concerning muscle dynamics to the conscious and subconscious parts of the central nervous system. They provide the brain with proprioceptive information at the subconscious level, about the body’s positioning with respect to gravityPhysiopedia2020MuscleSpindles.
Perception data may give us one’s view regarding their illness, and thus play a major role in the outcome of disease. The treatment of depression in CVD patients may benefit from a psychological intervention focused on patients’ illness representations, self-efficacy beliefs, and their perceived social support Greco2014PredictingMediators; Goldston2008DepressionApproaches. People who are feeling susceptible to an illness, expect to benefit if they change their behavior, and perceive their social environment as encouraging the change, but if they lack a belief that they can indeed change, their efforts are not likely to succeed. “Substantial empirical evidence suggests that self-efficacy beliefs (and the related concept of optimism) are reliable predictors of behavior, and that they mediate the effects of intervention on behavior change, including a number of health-related behaviors” Health2001IndividualsBookshelf.
The importance of identifying internal signals is to note the link between how internal cognizance and sensory experiences directly impact physiology. Two commonly known examples are the stress-response and the gut-brain connection. The common example of cognitive stress impacting physiology is in Figure 14 within chapter 2. About 100 trillion bacteria in the gut make neuro-active compounds, including the neurotransmitter serotonin, that regulate our emotions. The neurotransmitter can transmit signals directly to the gastrointestinal system to stimulate or suppress digestion Washington2018TheHealth. The “gut-wrenching feeling” that people have historically is a person’s stomach, or intestinal distress may cause anxiety or stress. Psycho-social situations directly influence gastrointestinal physiology and symptoms Washington2018TheHealth.
The methods for measuring or capturing information about sensory signals and internal cognizance is a computing challenge, as the information is difficult to attain continuously and unobtrusively. Currently, methods for capturing information is done through self-tracking, querying the user through surveys, yet there is no integration at a broader scale of other objective data streams. There is an increasing number of “Quantified-Self” individuals who diligently track many kinds of data about themselves, via data collection tools and self-experimentation methods Choe2014UnderstandingData. There may be several obstacles to this self-tracking, including tracking too much information and not tracking triggers with sufficient context. The current state of the field is to use Ecological-Momentary-Assessment (EMA) to have context-aware triggers that prompt the surveys Shiffman2008EcologicalAssessment; Dunton2016FeasibilityActivity.
Capturing the natural senses with the tools mentioned above helps to feed data towards the estimation, but there is an obvious need to go beyond this. The next section describes data capture methods that go beyond our human senses.
9.2 Digital Sensors
Throughout history, quantifying health at a higher resolution has always changed what it means to be considered healthy. The stethoscope, blood pressure cuff, and microscope all modified the definition because of their ability to sense a change in the health state beyond human senses. Modern continuous sensors, digital interactions, and biological measurement devices produce vast amounts of data. Continuous digital sensors including computers, smartphones, and wearables, are relatively inexpensive in cost, energy, and computing power. The significant progress in this technology makes it widely available for monitoring individual health data streams continuously Majumder2019SmartphoneDiagnosis. While continuous sensing gives us information readily, non-continuous or episodic sensors are still crucial for attaining high-resolution information with known levels of accuracy. Non-continuous methods that medical experts use with professional equipment give a deeper understanding and verification of ground truth. These methods include imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electrical signal capture such as electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrokardiogram (EKG), and other clinical methods that provide one time-slice high-resolution information. The noncontinuous methods give a good baseline of an individual’s state. There is a need for merging information from both continuous and episodic sensors for the best quality estimation over time.
Transitioning further into the digital sensor age, we will explore both continuous and episodic digital sensors. The four key sensor themes for continuous sensors include: perceptual, biologic, environmental, and event sensors. Perceptual quantification records human sensory information and provides continuous streams of data about emotions, sensory inputs, and brain activity. Biological sensors capture physiologic and molecular changes in the biology of the individual. Modern biological sensing mechanisms include “omic” data arrays, wearables, IoT devices, bio-markers, advanced imaging, and electrical signals. Environmental sensors track the external environment to understand a person’s surroundings and social situations. Event sensors track events or outcomes continuously that can be done virtually or physically. Virtual events include how we use our computers, phones, wearables, and other computing devices into a single collection called a screenome Reeves2020TimeProject. Physical events include the real-world daily life events of individuals, such as those as described by Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman These are captured in personal life-logging applications such as personicle Kahneman2004AMethod; Oh2017FromChronicles. There are various modalities for acquiring information about these themes. These include sensing mechanisms such as imaging, electrical sensing, optical sensing, HCI, audio, radio-frequency, and strain gauges.
Perceptual quantification of human sensory information can be observed by methods of observing sensory inputs and brain activity. It is a computational challenge to find methods for quantifying human perception via sensors; however, there are growing mechanisms to compute behavior and perception.
Galvanic skin resistance (GSR) refers to the electrical resistance between electrodes when a weak current passes between them. The electrodes are placed apart and the resistance will vary based on the emotional state of the subject due to variations in sweat gland fluid production. This sensor can be useful for the skin, as the skin serves as a conductor of electricity in situations when internal or external stimuli are physiologically arousing. “Arousal is widely considered to be one of the two main dimensions of an emotional response. Measuring arousal is not the same as measuring emotion, but is an important component of it. Arousal has been found to be a strong predictor of attention and memory” MITMediaLab2020FrequentlyQuestions. Stress sensors have been built based on GSR to measure test stress responses and detect stress states of an individual Villarejo2012AZigBee.
The advent of the smartphone and wearable devices has increased the possibilities of embedding sensors such as the accelerometer, GPS, optical sensors, and microphone. The integration of the sensors can collectively analyze patterns to understand an individual’s mental health. We can use passive data collected via devices (such as call history, text messages) or by active interpretation methods, such as analyzing voices in the microphone to measure stress. We can capture data on physical activity and movement during sleep from an accelerometer, optical heart rate, and GPS for a location to determine context. The combination of all of these gives a picture of an individual’s mental state Majumder2019SmartphoneDiagnosis.
The detection of emotions is becoming an increasingly growing area of research and development via emotion recognition methods. Corive et al. describes two channels of human interaction, one transmitting explicit messages and other transmitting implicit messages about speakers. The explicit channel is understood by linguistics and technology, but implicit messaging, such as understanding emotions, is not well understood Corive2001EmotionInteraction
. Techniques by which to process imaging and audio helps establish pattern recognition to uncover human emotions. The techniques may include signals from bio-sensors, such as Haag’s method for training computers to recognize the emotions of the wearersHaag2004EmotionSystem. “Biosensors may be used based on the synchronization between audiovisual stimuli and the corresponding physiological responses” Hui2018CoverageBiosensors. Emotion recognition techniques may also include analyzing speech signals (such as pitch and energy) KwonOhWookChangKwokleungHaoJiucangLee2003EurospeechAbstract.
In a broader sense of computing intelligence, The Turing test grades the ability of a computer to exhibit intelligent behavior indistinguishable from a real person Turing2009ComputingIntelligence; Shieber1994LessonsTest. Human health services such as a human doctor have a heightened sensory ability to understand the above perceptual aspects about a person, and hence are still sought after to deliver healthcare to people. If a computer can understand these same factors, we may be able to scale health services to more people with better performance. Hence, the above perception and emotion-sensing research and related challenges are vital if computing intelligence aims towards improving human health. Human doctors do not solely use this mode of sensing. They also incorporate objective information about a person’s biology.
Biological sensors measure internal changes in biological and physiologic function over time. There currently exists a vast selection of sensors that exist for capturing biological information beyond the scope of this thesis. We focus on devices such as wearables and smartphones that act as biological sensors in a continuous manner Majumder2019SmartphoneDiagnosis.We review a few modalities for biological sensing below:
a) Optical sensors within a wearable device continuously and unobtrusively monitor heart rates over a wearer’s wrist or head Holz2017Glabella. Optical sensors also detect oxygen saturation in the blood, and current research is conducted on blood pressure and glucose monitoring. The optical sensors work by using a reflected light pattern scatter from skin surface contact to estimate then the parameter of choice similar to a radar mechanism.
b) Imaging modalities are useful when screening blood for hemoglobin through cameras to understand a patient’s response to iron supplement treatment Wang2016HemaApp:Cameras. With a light source shining through a person’s finger, they have performed a chromatic analysis to analyze the color of their blood, estimating the hemoglobin level. Here a camera is directly collecting light, rather than looking for a return signal of scatter. Traditional images of the skin can also be used to detect changes in texture for wrinkles, color for changes in melanin and jaundice DeGreef2014BiliCam:Jaundice.
c) Audio modalities such as the microphone can serve as a spirometer to measure lung function. Home spirometry is more widely accepted for its ability to continuously detect pulmonary exacerbation and improve outcomes of chronic lung ailments. Larson et al. presented SpiroSmart, a low-cost mobile phone application that performs spirometry sensing using the built-in microphone Larson2012SpiroSmart:Phone. Audio methods also capture lung, heart, and bowel sounds though digital stethoscopes Leng2015TheStethoscope.
d) Strain gauge sensors measure the amount of force on the system. These are prevalent in many applications such as power meters, accelerometers, and the old-fashioned weight scale. Strain gauges work on the principle of Hooke’s Law as given in Equation 3.
Where F is the force applied, k is the spring constant, and x is the distance the spring changes. The most classic strain gauge sensor, yet still valuable, is the simple weight scale to measure body weight. These have been combined with electrical impedance sensors to get both body weight and body adipose tissue content Bera2014BioelectricalReview. Flexible skin-attachable strain-gauge sensors are an essential component in the development of artificial systems that can mimic the complex characteristics of the human skin. Pang et al. describe a strain sensor that enables the detection of pressure, shear, and torsion. Strain-gauge sensors are used to monitor signals from human heartbeats Pang2012ANanofibres. We can also measure respiration rate and volume measurements with wearable strain sensors and are useful for monitoring patients with chronic respiratory diseases Chu2019RespirationSensors.
The strain gauge sensor is also used in bicycle ergometers and crank arms to measure the torque applied onto the pedals Cycling2020TechnologyAmerica; Bini2011AOutput. Strain gauges can measure general movement activity (such as through wearable accelerometers) and aerobic exercise work capacity as CRF. CRF has a much stronger established relationship with true cardiovascular health Williams2001PhysicalMeta-analysis
. Widespread use of standard wearable accelerometers that measure steps or higher semantic activities like walking, jogging, biking are indicative of activity only, hence the need for using wearables that can give estimates of CRF for better HSE. Wearable devices have estimated energy expenditure through various computational approaches such as deep learningZhu2015UsingSensors, knowledge-based regression LUCIA2002KineticsCyclists, and data filtering and segmentation techniques Albinali2010UsingEstimation. Energy expenditure provides insight into the total amount of activity performed by an individual but does not provide maximal work output to estimate CRF.
Computational research in CRF prediction began in the 1970s with the formulation of exercise stress scoring metrics based on the newly available chest strap based heart rate monitors Banister1980PlanningTraining.; Borresen2009ThePerformance. Recently, contextual understanding improved the performance of heart rate based CRF estimation and was further refined by calibrating custom algorithmic parameters for a particular user Altini2016CardiorespiratorySensors; Altini2015PersonalizedModels
. Heart rate data incorporates additional features, such as vagal tone (commonly referred to as heart rate variability) and respiratory rate, to provide regression analysis more features for predictionSmolander2008AWorkers. Improvements in accelerometer-based CRF prediction have been achieved through body placement optimization Parkka2007EstimatingLocations. The only known research that has attempted the use of multi-modal data for CRF prediction is by Firstbeat Corporation. They use both heart rate and speed information with a proprietary algorithm to filter periods of heart rate that are indicative of steady-state metabolism Contents2014AutomatedData.
e) Omics, including genomic, microbiomic, metabolomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic data, is more widely used in understanding the biological model and state. This data can be used given a particular scope of the individual that is being reviewed. A genome consists of all genetic material, microbiome (all microbiota or bacteria that live in and on the body), metabolome (all metabolites), transcriptome (all RNA transcripts for gene expression), and epigenome (all epigenetic material or changes to DNA not based on genetics). There are two broad types of omic data: static data and dynamic data. Genetic information is more static due to the fixed measurements that give information on risk and a person’s unique model. For example, given the same sun exposure, two different individuals may have different responses to the sun due to their genetics. One may be sunburned, and another may not be. The genetics information gives insight into the relationship between sun exposure and the skin type, and thus the risks associated with genetics. Genetics is, therefore, a system model rather than a determinant for the state. Companies like 23andMe and Helix are focused on providing precise reports for genetics directly for the user via DNA genotyping methods done by mass sequencing technologies for individuals to understand their health model 23andMe2020DNA23andMe; Helix2020HelixGenomics. Dynamic omics data, including data from the metabolome, transcriptome, microbiome, and epigenome, is always in flux with a high rate of change. These give us a systems state with continuous information over time. For example, glucose is a metabolite that is constantly changing. With the transcriptome, each exercise event an individual may partake in rapidly changes one’s total RNA and gene expression. The research challenge with dynamic omic data is two-fold. Time-series data is needed to understand how the parameters are changing, and the data still is not available at a low-cost to both user intrusiveness and burden. Omic data research is an active area focused on further understanding of one’s precise state Wu2017-OmicMedicine; Integrative2014TheAuthor; Suravajhala2016Multi-omicWelfare. Overall, the use of various omic techniques is referred to as a multi-omics approach, as shown in Figure 16.
In general, low-cost continuous sensors, computing methods, and lifestyle integration of cardiovascular health hence provide a unique opportunity towards advances in HSE. A robust framework to integrate vast amounts of temporal data and knowledge from biological sensors in cardiovascular health has yet to be published today.
Environmental Environmental sensors allow for understanding the surroundings of an individual and their exposures. Many environmental sensors are measured directly (such as pressure and temperature sensors) or by sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks sense noise pollution in urban areas, and are available continuously. Traditionally noise pollution measurement has been involved and expensive. Santini et al. present a tool known as tinyLAB, a Matlab-based tool, enabling real-time acquisition, processing, and visualization of data collected in wireless sensor networks Santini2008FirstMonitoring.
While public data regarding the quality of the environment is readily available, it is not incorporated and tracked at the individual level. An open-source software platform, called EventShop, ingests and assimilates different data streamsGao2012EventShop:Control. It combines different environmental data streams ranging from climate data, air quality, pollen counts, and micro-blogs (like Instagram and Twitter) to understand how the environment is evolving. Also, the GPS allows us to track an individual’s location data and via geospatial data to understand exposures over time Dias2014ModellingApproach.
The concept of generalizing environmental impacts on a person is known as the “exposome,” or one’s exposure history. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines exposome as the “measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime and how those exposures relate to health” CDC2014CDCTopic. This includes a longitudinal exposure throughout one’s life since conception. The environmental impact, in conjunction with one’s biology, creates the personal exposome, as shown in Figure 17.
This concept of personal exposome is noted in several studies Wild2005ComplementingEpidemiology; CDC2014CDCTopic; Vrijheid2014ETheHealth; Siroux2016TheResearch; Maitre2019HealthChemicals. Wild describes the exposome in three domains: 1) general external environment including the urban environment, education, climate factors, social capital, stress, 2) a specific external environment with specific contaminants, radiation, infections, lifestyle factors (e.g. tobacco, alcohol), diet, physical activity, etc., and 3) an internal environment to include internal biological factors such as metabolic factors, hormones, gut microflora, inflammation, oxidative stress Wild2005ComplementingEpidemiology. He describes that the exposome requires consideration for both the nature of exposures and their changes over time. Jiang et al. developed a sensitive method to monitor personal airborne biological and chemical exposures. They found that human exposomes are diverse, dynamic, spatiotemporally-driven interaction networks with the potential to impact human health Jiang2018DynamicMonitoring. The exposome allows us to gather information specifically about an individual and be tracking their exposure history and how this may impact their health from a personalized level. Listed below are various tools used for measuring the exposome Wild2005ComplementingEpidemiology.
Measuring changing environmental pollutants can help model human exposure to micro-environments. Having the ability to measure the local environment of each individual will give insight into how they are affected by unnoticeable factors. For example, air and water pollution increase the risk of diabetes Rajagopalan2012AirInsights. Long term exposure to particulate matter in the air can activate pathophysiological responses that can induce insulin resistance Zheng2013ExposureModel; Liu2014ExaggeratedMellitus. A methodology developed and implemented by Dias provides the time-sequence of the exposure events, making possible association of the exposure with the individual activities and delivers main statistics on an individual’s air pollution exposure with high spatiotemporal resolution Dias2014ModellingApproach. The data combined with air pollutant concentrations for traffic pollution, estimate the micro-environments given a probabilistic model.
|General||Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics|
|Targeted||Adductomics, lipidomics, immunomics|
|Sensor technologies||Environmental pollutants, physical activity, stress, circadian rhythms, location|
|Imaging||Diet, environment, social interactions|
|Portable computerized devices||Behavior and experiences (EMA), stress, diet, physical activity|
|Improved conventional measurements||Job-exposure matrices; dietary recall|
Events Digital methods are increasingly capturing events of human life. An event is a signal capturing the occurrence of an action. These daily life actions are what make up the history of each human life and also provide an input that changes the health state. With the rise of smartphone applications capturing events, individuals can easily track daily human activities, nutrition, sleep, and location to give a few examples. Physical activities can be tracked by wearable devices that can measure activity type, location, distance, and other relevant attributes Strava2017StravaAthletes. Photos can easily capture food consumption habits. Image recognition of these photos can help to understand nutrition behaviors. There is growing accuracy in recognition of food photos and large scale images Yanai2015FoodFine-tuning Kawano2014FoodFeatures. The “personicle” concept is the most holistic application to collect lifelog events Jal2014Personicle:Events. Life events can be at various scales of time and space. Molecular interactions occur at the atomic size and nanosecond scale, while an event such as “attending college” can last years and span a large area of space. Building a unified data structure to capture any event is essential for a robust data collection system. There have been efforts in pulling a unified view on how to represent these events, which include six key aspects (Structural, Temporal, Causal, Spatial, Experiential, Informational) Westermann2007TowardApplications.
Unique to the digital era, time spent with screens is a large part of awake events in the current world. There are growing mechanisms for capturing event data about an individual in this light. The “screenome” reflects the use of digital media and screen time to analyze what people do and spend time with on their screens Reeves2020TimeProject. Each digital interaction gives insight into a neurological event. Smartphone applications such as Apple ScreenTime and RescueTime tracks habits and time spent on particular applications or time on web Apple2020UseSupport. Human interactions with social media capture much of an individual’s time spent (i.e., interests, activities, mental well-being). The interactions give us an understanding of individual choices, behavior, culture, and habits. To further understand one’s relationship with the screen, there is a proposition for a Human Screenome Project in which “screenomics data should be sifted using a gamut of approaches — from deep-dive qualitative analyses to algorithms that mine and classify patterns and structures” Reeves2020TimeProject. The project proposes reviewing an individual’s screen time to investigate physiological and psychological health states and sociological dynamics of interpersonal relations over time. Further research continues on the “screenome” for understanding screen time and human behaviors Yang2019UsingSmartphones.
Healthcare practice relies primarily on episodic or non-continuous sensors for dependable data acquisition. Professional-grade equipment generally has a higher expense but also higher accuracy and depth, which provides greater certainty in medical decision making. Professional equipment generally needs an operator for the measurements and may be more challenging to obtain this information unless it is a medical necessity. Although useful at the time taken, data collected in this manner is generally not used for any future steps in the person’s life after the clinical encounter. Professional-grade equipment provides calibrations at a current snapshot of the health state rather than continuous monitoring. Computing methods that are suitable for this include Kalman filteringGustafsson2013StatisticalFusion. Observing the role of accuracy and precision for each sensor is important based on the system goals. While many professional-grade types of equipment have high accuracy, it may be more relevant to hold precision (with continuous measurements), to detect a change in the health state. Episodic measurements combined with continuous measurements are therefore most ideal, increasing the accuracy of the current state with high temporal resolution to changes in the state.
Conventional professional equipment used for collecting individual data includes imaging, microscopy, and blood work. For example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are sensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation Kwong1992DynamicStimulation, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) have been used in cardiovascular studies to determine that sulcal width, ventricular size, and white matter signal intensity change with age, sex, and race yu2005mining. Other equipment such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanners, allow for one-off measurements of bone density and visceral fats Chen2012AbdominalMice.
Several medical procedures to gather data have risks associated that may be adverse to an individual. For example, an angiogram is an invasive medical procedure that holds the risk of radiation exposure from X-rays used, major complications including injury to the catheterized artery, arrhythmia’s, allergic reaction to dyes, kidney damage, and more Clinic2020CoronaryAngiogram. Thus, in addition to being episodic, there are also non-trivial risks to these high-quality measurements. These expensive sensing mechanisms initialize, calibrate, or validate a health state, and the less expensive sensors, which are more continuous, non-invasive, and accessible, would be available to estimate the current state from the most recently calibrated state.
9.3 External Data Sources
There may be sources that are external to the individual that may be capturing the individual’s health information. This includes domain experts who are capturing measurements or observations on the individual, or external agents that an individual interacts with, such as a business.
Domain Experts Domain experts who are trained professionals can have a role in collecting data manually. For example, a physical therapist may use direct measurements and observations for determining an individual’s flexibility or with goniometers. Clinicians commonly use norm-referenced, standardized measurements Horak1987ClinicalAdults. In the field of psychology, experts question individuals to understand their psychological state and needs, and thus mental health relies on domain experts for detecting and determining psychiatric issues. This system largely relies on domain experts to act as the sensor Treffers1990ThePsychiatry.
External Platforms Data acquisition about individuals is also common through platforms operated by external entities and businesses. The platforms designed to collect individual data are for pattern analysis to observe the individual’s behavior. Loyalty programs for restaurants, credit cards, and stores collect information on individuals by observing their purchasing behavior. The programs have sophisticated tracking mechanisms between a customer and a brand that can help the program better understand the buyer’s habits. Current progress in this field aims to use this information during a live interaction with a customer Davenport2013BigCompanies. Companies may be using searches, clicks, and views on particular topics in order to understand an individual’s interest and target advertisements accordingly. This process may not be at the request of the individual but based on the websites an individual visits and items they buy. External data gathering may also allow agents to track habits, behaviors, and patterns on individuals, giving the insight to develop the business Mcafee2012BigRevolution. The world’s largest consumer-facing technology companies, such as Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Netflix, critically depend on this data acquisition process for their business performance.
The data digitally collected and stored externally is vast and expanding rapidly. As a result, organizations convert this information and knowledge for their objectives, whether it be in “astronomy (e.g., the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of telescopic information), retail sales (e.g., Walmart’s expansive number of transactions), search engines (e.g., Google’s customization of individual searches based on previous web data), and politics (e.g., a campaign’s focus of political advertisements on people most likely to support their candidate based on web searches)” Murdoch2013TheCare. According to Murdoch, it is inevitable that this data will have a large role in providing insight into the health state, such as data gathering mechanisms to observe broader trends to predict emergency room visits. Google Trends (a free, publicly available aggregator of relevant search terms) has been used to predict surges in flu-related emergency room visits Google2020GoogleTrends. Similarly, Twitter updates were as accurate as official reports at tracking the spread of cholera in Haiti after the January 2010 earthquake Mcafee2012BigRevolution.
Data collection through sensing mechanisms remains a considerable research challenge for humans due to the complex nature of understanding and capturing the health state. The above review is just the tip of the iceberg. The next step in the health state computing pipeline is to use these sensor measurements within an estimation approach.
10 State Estimation for Individual Health
State estimation for health allows us to understand the current health situation for an individual. We will review the various approaches for how health can be estimated: quantified approaches, classification approaches, probabilistic approaches, and subjective approaches. It is important to note that though various approaches may exist, they are highly interconnected, and each one alone may not be sufficient.
10.1 Quantified Approaches
Quantified approaches give insight into where an individual is within a state space based on objective measurements. Individuals take blood tests, such as a basic metabolic panel, which is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood, including blood glucose, calcium, electrolytes, and lipoproteins. However, the extrapolation of the information then allows the physician to come to a conclusion or learn what these levels may indicate. A physician can form a conclusion about the readings depending on the parameter of the state space. For example, if HDL cholesterol is 20, that is considered in a poor state, compared to a value of 70, which is a good state. A visualization of these quantified states in the case of hormones is in Figure 19.
One’s blood alcohol level is determined based on measurements that determine the specific amounts of alcohol in the blood. If the blood alcohol content (BAC) reaches a threshold of 0.08, it indicates legal intoxication, which is a threshold-based classification. Quantification is necessary, but may not be sufficient alone within an interpretation or added meaning of what this measurement indicates. Similarly, eye power is measured by a diopter, a unit of measurement of the optical power of a lens or curved mirror, which is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measures in meters Dictionary.com2020DiopterDictionary.com. The objective measurement of power can be useful when determining thresholds, such as determining whether an individual is legally blind or not. This need for classification may be determined external to the individual (i.e., safety, legal) not necessarily based on the health state of the individual. Thus placing a layer of information on top of the quantification approach provides more meaningfulness to the health state.
10.2 Classification Approaches
Classification methods, as we have described in Chapter 2, define health based on disease, conditions, and various measurements to define the state of one’s health. Classifications may help in creating standards that may be beyond an individual’s specific situation. In the example of the blood alcohol content, the standards of classifications can identify toxicity and thus concerns about safety. Disease classification is internationally recognized through the International Classification for Disease (ICD), Tenth Revision, by the World Health Organization. The ICD-10 code serves as a classifying method to label whether an individual is in a disease state. The ICD allows for systematic recording analysis, interpretation of mortability and morbidity in various locations globally, and disease classification for health problems Organization2004InternationalProblems.
Widely used classifications of disease include (1) topographic, by bodily region or system (i.e., vascular disease), (2) anatomic, by organ or tissue (i,.e. heart disease), (3) physiological (i.e., metabolic disease), by function or effect, (4) pathological (i.e., inflammatory disease), by the nature of the disease process, (5) etiologic (causal) (i.e., staphylococcal causing pneumonia), (6) juristic, by speed of advent of death, (7) epidemiological (i.e., typhoid), and (8) statistical (i.e., diet as a cause of atherosclerosis) Robbins2011HumanBritannica.com. For each of these classifications, we see that there may or may not be threshold values that contribute to classification.
Threshold Classification approaches are defined by how an individual’s health can be labeled. It may be a particular threshold met to define whether an individual has a disease or does not. Thresholds are, therefore, a region of interest within a continuum. For example, in Figure 20 showing the Fletcher Curve for lung function decline, the classification of where one falls along the curve can be “onset of symptoms,” “disability,” or “death” Tantucci2012LungCOPD. The thresholds are determined generally by population data. It would not be possible to estimate the health of one individual solely and classify this individual’s state unless it was a postmortem analysis. Therefore thresholds are more commonly generated given population data.
Categorical Classification approaches are also important in a categorical sense. For example, in many cases of cancer, a tumor can be defined as metastasized or benign without any particular threshold met. One either has cancer or does not. The same applies to infection; one can either test positive or negative for infection with no thresholds to determine the disease. We also see classifications of sex if an individual either has chromosomes XX or XY. There is no in-between threshold for these classifications.
Classification approaches alone are not sufficient for defining the state of an individual’s health if used solely; there will be no observation of state change at a high resolution, and change will only be detected when crossing a threshold. The continuum is essential for recognizing alongside classifications.
10.3 Probabilistic Approaches
Probabilistic approaches measure the likelihood of a future event. Risk factors are needed to compute the probability of having a disease. There are methods of calculating risk that takes into consideration age, biometrics, and gender to determine chances for having a disease. The information in this approach may be based on the estimation of a population or based on an individual’s unique information. Essentially this approach is giving a person a distance between an undesired region on the state space and their current state.
Population Based Population-based probabilistic approaches use population samples that are most similar to the individual. It is essentially using other people as a model for one’s self. Population health is “the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group,” including health outcomes, patterns of health determinants, and policies and interventions that are links to outcomes and determinants Kindig2003WhatHealth. Health can be measured at a population level to understand the functioning and well-being of a group that is similar to an individual. Classic factors for calculating population health include geography and demographics information.
In regards to CVD, population-level health estimation is a primary way of understanding behaviors that contribute to cardiovascular disease for individuals. Multifactorial cardiovascular health risks have been investigated in many of the extensive epidemiological studies such as the Framingham Study, which lay the foundation for most modern clinical guidelines by the AHA and American College of Cardiology (ACC). Conclusions from these large studies are useful in current clinical practice through the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) calculator Institute2018FraminghamNHLBI
. This pooled cohort algorithm was based on linear regression analysis for four separate cohorts of individuals female blacks, male blacks, female whites, male whites. They also take into account age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking history, diabetes (binary field: yes or no), medication history (hypertension, statins, aspirin only), and is only applicable for patients in the age range of 40-79. The limitations of this calculator include the requirement of invasive blood data and non-consumer based lab processing. The estimated risks and scores are specific to defined combinations of the risk factors and demonstrate how they vary over a broad spectrum of potential profiles. These determined risks are now primarily used as guidelines for understanding individual riskWhelton20182017Guidelines. The American College of Cardiology takes the inputs of risk factors for ASCVD such as age, gender, blood work (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol), medical history, and medication status. The calculation will generate the chances by percentage for the likelihood of ASCVD. More information such as genetics and behavior can further enhance the accuracy of the risk calculation Whelton20182017Guidelines; Cardiology2020ASCVD+; Lloyd-Jones2019UseCardiology.
There are many human health risk assessments, models, and tools developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). For example, the “All Ages Lead Model (AALM) predicts lead concentration in body tissues and organs for a hypothetical individual, based on a simulated lifetime of lead exposure” and “statistical methods extrapolate to a population of similarly exposed individuals.” This model provides risk assessors with a tool for evaluating the sources of lead in a population or potential exposure to lead EPA2020HumanDatabases.
There have been several efforts for making long-term population health research using probabilistic approaches more expansive, include the United States Precision Medicine Initiative led by President Barack Obama. The Precision Medicine Initiative is a long-term research endeavor, involving the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and multiple other research centers, which aims to understand how a person’s genetics, environment, and lifestyle can help determine the best approach to prevent or treat disease House2020PrecisionInitiative. Other examples of long-term population health research include Mobile Sensor Data to Knowledge Kumar2017CenterMD2K, and Alphabet’s Verily division Verily2019XVerily. These approaches seek to understand what population cohort characteristics allow for similarity comparisons between individuals to group them into sub-populations. These sub-populations allow for a more specific estimation of an individual’s health state. The World Health Organization has conducted long term studies for lung cancer as rates had rapidly increased in the 20th century; sub-populations and geography were closely examined in the epidemiological studies to understand the reasons for the spike in disease Bernard2014World2014. Long term research efforts for acquiring data may take decades before we have data available for meaningful insight, as they largely depend upon outcomes of morbidity and mortality before they become sufficiently robust. For this reason, they are inappropriate to use as the benchmark for state estimation at the individual level.
Non-population based Personalized models are used in probabilistic approaches to determine one’s health state. Current approaches to identify patients at risk for arrhythmia are of low sensitivity and specificity. Personalized approaches to assess Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) risk in post-infarction patients have been developed based on cardiac imaging and computational modeling. Personalized three-dimensional computer models constructed post-infarction hearts from patients’ clinical magnetic resonance imaging. The propensity of each model to develop arrhythmia was assessed Arevalo2016ArrhythmiaModels, as shown in Figure 4 in chapter 1 (personalized heart models).
Personal experience may also account for valuable information in probabilistic approaches. For example, if an individual experiences knee pain when cycling that leads to knee tendinitis, by experience, they can determine if the probability of the same pain occurring to be associated with the tendinitis if they have data collected. These are experience-based probabilities that can help individuals estimate their health state. The personal experience and perception of pain in determining the probability of a health state may also a subjective approach.
10.4 Subjective Approaches
Subjective approaches for estimating health include observation and perceptual data that can be used as information to understand one’s state and also future risks. If any individual holds information such as self history, changes in feelings over time (i.e., pain increase over time), this information can be used in correlation to other objective metrics to generate a conclusion about the current state. This method for gathering knowledge and information depends on a user’s intent or experience. We can observe this, for example, in the dynamic nature of recreation experience. Experience patterns capture engagement over time. Seven qualities of hikers’ experiences (four mood measures, two satisfaction measures, and landscape scenic beauty) were assessed at twelve moments during a hike in Hull’s study. The subjective data components may be relevant for understanding the experience and how this is contributing to the state of the individual Hull1992ExperienceExperience.
There have been advancements in tools for data collection methods, such as facial recognition, natural language processing (NLP), and surveys that combine pieces to generate an estimation for how an individual is feeling. Facial recognition attempts to estimate emotions and track feelings over time. NLP relates thoughts, language, and patterns of behavior learned through experience to specific outcomesManning2015TheToolkit; Fleischman2002EmotionalGeneration. Basic survey methods for asking individuals about their lifestyle and behavior are also still common forms to gain knowledge about an individual’s health trajectory.
All of the above-mentioned estimation approaches have a unique value. The integration of the above approaches is still highly sought after in the research and clinical communities. In order to truly have the integration at an individual level for state estimation, we need to investigate modeling techniques.
11 Personal Human Health Models
Given the measurements described above and estimation approaches, we need to have a personal model to fulfill some essential design requirements mentioned. A model characterizes the relationship between the inputs and outputs to one’s health. The most obvious benefit the ability to predict, which requires having a model by which to estimate a future state. Thus, we review various approaches in forecasting or modeling long term health. To design a robust model, we must incorporate domain knowledge, taking epidemiological data, and individual data to ultimately make a generalized personal model. We must note that the model is not always static and needs to be updated.
There are several distinct levels we consider for building a personal model. In the first level, researchers have applied general rules directly related to known human domain knowledge (i.e., biology, physiology, behavior) to establish a general human system model. This model approach is most familiar in the form of textbooks. In the second, we incorporate specific knowledge that applies to sub-categories of similar people that we call cohort generalization or sub-population fitting. This layer is the function of the individual at a specific time and place. Clinicians use this method quite often when suggesting a course of action for a particular patient. Third, we consider “static” variables such as genetics and birthdate (fixed individual parameters). Fourth, dynamic individual models use the previously mentioned three layers with constant real-time data to update the model. The visualization of these layers is shown in Figure 21.
11.1 General Human Systems
We first review models using general rules provided by medical and biological knowledge to represent the human. These are objective models based on well-defined textbook knowledge that gives us the insight to forecast human health. Models help us understand a human’s relationship to the environment, its current situation, and plans for the future. We will review models using biological and behavioral domain knowledge.
Physiological modeling takes biological knowledge and apply this to our understanding of how a person functions. Biological information regarding the individual is captured in, for example, the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). This model is based on the monitoring of biomarkers to catch doping with performance-enhancing drugs. The ABP gives a unique mark on an individual’s hematological profile as a baseline, and any deterrence in the system, such as through doping, will trigger a physiological change Sottas2011ThePassport. This model applies a standard set of thresholds to all athletes, such as having a hematocrit under 50 is considered normal.
Researchers have also built models regarding functional biological components, such as a model of the heart for better understanding the functional interactions between cells, organs, and systems, as well as how interactions between them change disease states. “The rapid growth in biological databases; models of cells, tissues, and organs; and the development of powerful computing hardware and algorithms have made it possible to explore functionality in a quantitative manner all the way from the level of genes to the physiological function of whole organs and regulatory systems” Noble2002ModelingOrgan. Figure 22 is a model determined by several human samples, giving us a representation of the constriction of blood flow within an example heart. This type of model allows for the simulation of various physiological situations.
Computational modeling can be used for biological processes that are occurring within the mind. For example, the neurological process of associative memory has a model of processing. This model demonstrates how the brain handles pieces of information in a serial order. A study conducted sequentially arranged patterns to simulate memory serving as a digital representation of human memory Wegner1995AMemory.
Behavioral modeling allows for the interpretation of human behavior and preferences. Human behavior can be very complex, and models are often simplified within a system or domain. A traditional behavioral model is Pavlov’s classical and operant conditioning, which pairs a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a desired response Clark2004TheConditioning; Gormezano1975HandbookBooks. Another early theoretical model developed for understanding health behaviors was the health belief model in Figure 23, which shows how particular human attributes contribute to perceived severity, benefits, and motivations to take action on health.
A third example of a human behavior model shows that behavior has multiple layers that are interconnected. This research was conducted in the modeling the behavior during training laparoscopic surgeons Wentink2003RasmussensTraining, shown in Figure 24.
The model of human driving gives a specific representation of behavior. “The model of the driver includes lateral and longitudinal control tasks such as path-following, obstacle avoidance, and headway control, examples of steering and braking activities performed by the human driver” Macadam2003UnderstandingDriver. Macdam et al. recognize that both physical limitations and other attributes that make the human driver unique, characterize human control behavior. Knowing this model predicts the performance of the human over time.
Quantification methods are needed for behavior models to be more comprehensive and precise. Human interactions have been modeled through Bayesian computer vision systems to recognize human behaviors in visual surveillance. Oliver et al. designed a system combining a top-down with bottom-up information in a closed feedback loop, comparing two different state-based learning architectures for modeling behaviors and interactionsOliver2000AInteractions. There are also quantification methods applied to human performance modeling to analyze human function and development of systems for optimal user experience. Sebak et al. summarize this well in their review of behavior models describing how “human performance models predict human behavior in a task, domain, or system. However, these models must be based upon and compared against empirical human-in-the-loop data to ensure that the human performance predictions are correct” Sebok2013UsingDevelopment.
Many of these approaches use a connection between various functional abilities or biological components connected through an informal or formal graph structure. We can see this clearly in many of the figures visually. While using these objective measurements to model general health through biology and behavior may be useful, combining this with models based on demographic data gives us further precision into one’s long term health state.
11.2 Sub-Population Fitting
Demographic, cohort, or population-based models refine general health models. Cohort generalizations consider population-level findings and apply this data to an individual, based on most similarities to the individual. For example, risk calculators predict cardiac arrest. The Revised Cardiac Risk Index is a cardiac risk stratification tool that allows us to model humans by making taking population data and making calculations based on known unique factors (gender, age, blood panel) a Gupta2011DevelopmentSurgery. A defined cohort allows estimation of distributions of prevalence rates of relevant variables, such as risk factors. Advantages of a population-based cohort study arise from the specific health-related parameters for the reference population, which allows the estimation of population risk figures used for planning Szklo1998Population-basedStudies. This is a typical medical approach to sub-group matching.
Sub-population data is useful for making assumptions about individuals based on others who are similar to them, known as collaborative filtering. This is a typical computer recommender system approach to sub-group matching. This method makes predictions and recommendations based on feedback information from a community of users. The method assumes that people are similar when they have similar interests and do not assume causal modeling. We see the collaborative filtering techniques commonly used for online platforms, such as Facebook, Google, Netflix, and Amazon, used in recommendations to an individual based on the preferences of others who are similar. The technique applies to healthcare in systems with limited prevalence. Personal healthcare modeling for communications between users in online forums uses this method to monitor the condition of patients and help people with similar conditions interact and exchange experiences Vlahu-Gjorgievska2011PersonalTechniques.
11.3 Static Individual Parameters
Individual parameters that are not constantly changing over time and are “fixed” can be used to understand an individual’s model at a given point in time. These parameters may include genetics data, birth information, and their unique medical history, or developmental disorders. “Fixed” is in quotations because all components are subject to change, including genetics, thorough DNA damage, and technologies like CRISPR Cong2013MultiplexSystems. Recognizing fixed parameters allows for modeling an individual upon these constraints. For example, the bone length is usually a fixed parameter when an individual reaches adulthood. As the growth plates close, the bone will remain a particular length going forward, providing information on one’s body size and enabling customization for health or shopping for clothing. We have seen these models developed in Retul’s bike fit testing for helping users select appropriate bike models, improving pedaling technique and selecting bike components for one’s specific biomechanics and measurements, as shown in Figure 25 Retul2020RetulFitters. Orthotic specialists use this approach as well. Many multimedia efforts focus on understanding which clothing best suits the fit of an individual’s parameters Ashdown2006AIndustry; Fan2004ClothingTechnology.
Other static parameters, including genetics, can be useful to model an individual’s exposures and future health risk. Companies such as 23andMe are using genetics data to model an individual and give them information about their objective genetic parameters. With this, we can make predictions about a person’s future health state, such as genetic predispositions for developing heart disease, cancers, relationship to various foods and activities, and behavioral tendencies 23andMe2020DNA23andMe.
11.4 Towards Dynamic Personal Models
The modeling techniques mentioned above so far assume that the person is an entity that does not change over time. These models assume that the individual model is static. In reality, this is a false assumption. A human model must continuously change due to circumstance, aging, and events that are impacting the person. There have been further efforts in building adaptive modeling techniques.
Contemporary digital technologies measuring constant change, such as on-engine monitors in airplanes, are used to maintain the well-being of jet engines and also similarly could be applied to humans Tarassenko2018MonitoringPeople. Tarrasenko’s “digital twin” consists of a particular engine and a unique computer model that accurately adapts to estimate the state of that particular engine. For example, if an engine flies from Los Angeles to Houston where the weather is dry, compared to an engine that flies a rainy route from Vancouver to Montreal, the model of how the engine state changes is different, even if the engine is from the same manufacturer. When applied to people, the digital twin is a computer simulation of an individual that dynamically reflects the individual’s molecular status, physiology, and lifestyle over time. An alternative concept of digital human twins relies on a large information infrastructure that characterizes each individual for demographics, biological data, physiology, anatomy, and environment, along with treatment and outcomes for medical conditions. Tarrasenko et al. describe “the twin represent(ing) the nearest-neighbor patient, derived from the algorithmic matching of the maximal proportion of data points using a sub-type of AI known as nearest-neighbor analysis.” This example harks back to the collaborative filtering methods mentioned above.
The Howard Chang Personal Dynamic Regulome Lab works on understanding what inputs change the state of an individual. Their concept is to “create the GPS system for navigating the regulomic landscape of human health and disease. Each gene has a system of switches that controls when and where a gene will turn on. The regulome is the complete set of switches for all genes. Regulated gene expression plays key roles in nearly every developmental program and disease state, and dozens of human therapeutics act through this regulation to alter gene expression. We aim for technologies to determine rapidly how the regulomes of individual patients and disease tissues maps into a global landscape, and how each intervention changes their trajectories in real-time. This real-time information feedback between perturbation and outcome is essential to tailor precise medical treatments for individual patients. They face challenges of how these new technologies must be compatible with the small sample sizes of human biopsies and clinical workflows if they are to be widely adopted” Qu2015IndividualityCells. Essentially, the regulome integrates events with specific changes in biological gene expression. This concept is visualized in Figure 26.
Dynamic modeling can be crudely done currently in systems like STELLA, a visual programming language created to run models through a graphical interface. This model is represented by stocks, flows, and variables to represent a single entity moving in the system. Each of the interconnected icons is defined mathematically. STELLA can be used to represent a biological model for human cholesterol dynamics, circadian rhythm control, and more Hargrove1998DynamicSciences. STELLA can be used for modeling cardiovascular function Romstedt2003ModelingBiology. Other examples of systems dynamics programs to see entities changing in a system is through Insight Maker, an open-source program to use loop diagrams to create simulation models Maker2019InsightBrowser. Important to note, the “dynamic” word in these approaches refers to the system state is dynamic, while the relationships between variables are generally static.
In order to have a successful dynamic model, the constantly changing health measures are recorded using real-time sensor data. Firstbeat Technologies collects various data sources through wearables and makes sense of the information together and its relevance to an individual’s health state. The dynamic model of a person’s aerobic fitness level uses the calculation of the maximum volume of oxygen (VO2max). The method uses the heart rate and speed relationship and detects the reliable data period for VO2max estimate during the exercise. Firstbeat has created a method to calculate the VO2max in an uncontrolled real-life exercise. This includes a physiological basis, the linear relationship between oxygen consumption and running speed. The “technology (such as GPS sensors and foot pods in wrist devices or mobile phones) enables reliable measurement of running speed along with heart rate. These parameters can be monitored continuously and automatically during each workout” Firstbeat2020WhiteFirstbeat. They capture the personal information of the individual, such as age. They use a device that calculates heart rate segmentation to estimate the fitness data through the person’s heart rate and speed data Firstbeat2020WhiteFirstbeat. These models are a good start, but still remain quite primitive in that they only use a handful of variables to build a dynamic model about the individual.
Once again, there is a common theme of needing to use continuous data streams to build models about people that improve over time—connecting the data to the person’s model has the most promise in the simple graphical approach. Modern artificial intelligence modeling techniques also have been utilizing graphs as a primary method of connecting data and meaning RussellStuartNorvig2003NoApproach. For this reason, we move into reviewing the various techniques for representing the individual dynamically through graph modeling below.
12 Artificial Intelligence and Graphs
Humans have spent a greater part of the last century developing machines that can improve the quality of life. Computing, with machine processing information towards a goal, contributed to a large portion of this progress. Machines that can execute complex thinking tasks such as reasoning, planning, and learning is artificial intelligence (AI) RussellStuartNorvig2003NoApproach. Modern research efforts continue to investigate how these artificial intelligence principles can apply to health. Health is a product of functional interactions of many objects such as molecules, cells, organisms, and the environment. Based on this premise of connectedness in the world, graphs are one of the most potent ways to represent the real world computationally. We review key relevant principles in AI for HSE.
12.1 Graph Networks
Established by Leonhard Euler in 1736, graph theory is the study of modeling relationships between objects Guichard2016IntroductionTheory. Undirected graphs are a tool used to capture symmetrical relationships between objects. Directed graphs contain connections that have a source object and a target object, thus establishing a direction by which relationships flow. Graphs are an excellent computing methodology for capturing the connectedness of information about our health. Graph networks connect how genes are expressed in cancer and healthy tissue to identify topology that distinguishes them apart Sandhu2015GraphNetworks. Gene identification methods can also determine pathways for CVD, merging omics data with biological knowledge, as shown in Figure 28. By identifying the biological networks for a system, we can see transitions from a healthy to a diseased state Diez2010TheDisease.Graph networks can construct the human brain networks (brain regions as nodes and pairwise associations as edges) by combing functional and material causes (shown in Figure ) Bassett2009HumanDisease. There may be a clustering of physiologic patterns related to the nodes, as seen by measuring REM activity as a risk for CVD (shown in Figure ) Hou2016VisibilitySleep. Lastly, by using graph structures, we can start observing causal relationships.
12.2 Causal Reasoning
Causal reasoning is the process of understanding the relationship between a cause and its effect. Causal events usually have a temporal aspect in which the cause is antecedent to the effect. Graph structures are typically employed to represent causal pathways. Computing methods that understand and can discover causal reasoning is of great interest to the AI and statistical fields. Turing award winner, Judea Pearl, describes causal calculus as “the ability to infer intervention probabilities from conditional probabilities in causal Bayesian networks with unmeasured variables”Pearl2013AActions. A benchmark of this work is the detection and description of confounding variables within data. Pearl’s criterion, which he calls “backdoor,” provides a robust definition of confounding variables, enhancing the identification of variables worthy of measurement Pearl2018TheWhy. An investigation into causal reasoning in early AI research conducted, uses pathophysiological knowledge in medical diagnoses Patil1986REVIEWDIAGNOSIS.. The medical community continues to seek a causal understanding. Goodman et al. use the Framingham model as an example to identify causal factors (such as smoking cholesterol, blood pressure, i.e.) through prior knowledge and changes in risk factor Goodman2018MachineReasoning. Causal relationships also conduct simulations using demographic information Chen2013CanSimulations.
12.3 Knowledge Structures
Similar to a database, a knowledge base stores information about the real world. The first knowledge bases were “expert systems” Chandrasekaran1986GenericDesign
. Knowledge in health largely consists of understanding the output of a system after it is perturbed given an input. This knowledge arrives from established causality from scientific discovery. A graph structure can store the causal relationship of various parts of health through directed edges which store the cause as a source node, and the effect as the target node. From a molecular level to a societal level, these relationships are routinely in the scientific literature. In light of this, we review knowledge structures in graph format, also known as knowledge graphs.
Google harbors one of the largest knowledge graphs at the current time, with over 70 billion facts Vincent2016AppleVerge. Knowledge graphs have been described in various forms Ehrlinger2016TowardsGraphs. Collectively, the aim of knowledge captured in this format is for use in further sharing and computing. Within the domain of health, there have been various efforts to capture this knowledge. Cytoscape is an open-source software platform to capture the relationships between molecular entities for biological research Shannon2003Cytoscape:Networks. An example of Cytoscape software is given in Figure 29. Non-profit databases such as Pathway Commons store the molecular pathways used in Cytoscape PathwayCommons2020PathwayAnalysis. Heterogeneous networks, or HetNets in short form, have also been described in biology through the work of Himmelstein et al. Himmelstein2017SystematicRepurposing. By gathering public domain literature into a connected knowledge base, queries are run to determine distances between entities to discover pathways for re-purposing drugs. A data-model of how these HetNets are shown in Figure 30. These efforts in accumulating knowledge into data structures can be extended for use in further applications, yet have mostly been limited to specialized domains of research.
In the field of cardiovascular research, there has been a call for the integration of diverse knowledge graphs to work together. This approach has been called multi-scale cardiology by Johnson et al. Current clinical knowledge in cardiovascular health derives insight broad clinical trials and studies. This knowledge is placed into sweeping standardized guidelines. Johnson et al. describe future research needs in applying AI and knowledge network models to enable a more precise understanding of patients and matching the best therapies for a particular person Johnson2017EnablingMedicine, shown in Figure 31. This work highlights the issue of integrating knowledge even within a specific sub-field of research as a formidable challenge.
As we think forward about establishing a state estimation model for health, knowledge graphs can help instantiate a model of an individual at various abstraction scales. Knowledge graphs are essential to overcome the cold start problem of personal HSE.
12.4 Systems Thinking
Systems thinking approaches problems through an eagle-eye view of interrelated components, contrasting reductionist approaches that try to isolate the view of study to a highly controlled environment within which we understand perturbations. A system may express emergent behavior when the parts accumulate, giving homage to the famous term “greater than the sum of its parts.” As described by Fang et al., “a fundamental tenet of systems biology is that cellular and organismal constituents are interconnected, so that their structure and dynamics must be examined in intact cells and organisms rather than as isolated parts” Fang2011ReductionisticScience. Inputs to one part of the system can propagate to other parts of the system. Systems approaches can predict how these effects will propagate.
STELLA and InsightMaker are examples of modeling systems with stocks and flows Maker2019InsightBrowser; Doerr2004StellaLiterature. The user places interconnected icons and defines functions mathematically of how a particular value is flowing into and out of stocks. The most classic example of this method is a bathtub with an in-flow from the faucet and an out-flow through the drain. This approach has been used in modeling cardiovascular function, as shown in Figure 33 Romstedt2003ModelingBiology. Systems models that are intelligent that change their structure remain a challenge in this field.
A robust HSE requires a systems approach due to the complexity of biology. At the same time, we must incorporate reductionist science discovery to have the best performance. To address this computationally, we look towards microservices.
12.5 Microservice Architecture
Microservice architecture is a software development technique whereby an application is made from a compilation of loosely coupled services. These services provide a specified interaction with other services. Reductionist science is a microservice reporting on the behavior of an isolated system. An extensive collection of these systems that have knowledge-driven connections between them can start to build a systems approach to using these smaller nuggets of knowledge. The modular nature of microservices also means that a system can easily swap out, add, or delete a service if there is an updated or out-dated version without breaking the whole system structure. Hence microservices are readily understood as a graph network of interacting Application Programming Interfaces (API).
This approach is used in primarily identifying device or software performance health, and security. As examples, microservices are used in modeling IoT devices for health Hill2017EnablingMicroservices, monitoring the health of the software itself Toffetti2015AnMicroservices, and implementing security measures Esposito2017SecurityApproach. No one known to date has used the microservice approach to represent the health of an individual directly.
12.6 Data-Driven Learning
Uncovering complex patterns specific to an individual requires harmony between top-down approaches through knowledge, as mentioned above, alongside data-driven bottom-up approaches. These data-driven approaches can discover patterns that human analysis may fail to see. We can use data in learning how to adapt models to best fit reality constantly. A large part of these patterns in health and life is temporal. This approach is the particular aim of event-mining research.
Event mining encompasses techniques for automatically and efficiently extracting valuable knowledge from the historical event and log data Li2015EventApplications. Event Mining: Algorithms and Applications presents state-of-the-art event mining approaches and applications with a focus on computing system management Li2015EventApplications. Event mining can be challenging as it requires familiarity with domain literature for meaningful pattern discovery.
In general, temporal data is considered as a sequence of a primary data type, most commonly numerical or categorical values and sometimes multivariate information. Temporal data is presented in a numerical time series of values or events (e.g., EEG, stock price), click streams). Some primary goals of temporal data mining include pattern analysis, search, prediction, and clustering. Translating knowledge maps for events into a temporal visual representation Wang2013AData. Different variants of sequential patterns are described agrawal1995mining; chaochen1991calculus; li1996hierarchyscan. Multidimensional patterns are particularly interesting for health since there are usually many parameters to compare at once yu2005mining; han2000freespan; ayres2002sequential. There have been extractions of knowledge in literature for event mining in the context of systems biology Ananiadou2010EventLiterature. By using the knowledge above as a basis for constraints, the search space for mining these patterns can be reduced in computational complexity pei2001prefixspan; morzy2002efficient; pei2002mining; wojciechowski2001interactive. Machine learning approach based on Bayesian networks is trained on medical health records to predict the probability of having a cardiovascular event. Unfortunately, their model fails to use high temporal resolution data Bandyopadhyay2015DataData
. Temporal patterns are just one avenue by which to use data-driven approaches. A breakthrough in machine learning and AI systems in the last decade has been through the advancement of neural networks.
represent a broad class of algorithms modeled after the human neuronal connections for pattern recognition. A network starts with input as stimuli and propagates a signal to neighboring nodes by an activation function, such as sigmoid or tanh. Each pair of nodes have particular edge weights. Below are these activation functions and weights.
Training the network is based upon defining a cost function that is optimized. This concept is shown visually in Figure 34. As of 2020, neural networks have provided a valuable computing method to recognize patterns when given large amounts of data. This data-hungry need for neural networks is a double-edged sword. For systems that continuously produce large amounts of homogeneous data, it is advantageous. Unfortunately, large amounts of data about an are rarely collected, and thus there has not yet been much progress in using this method for personal HSE. Regardless, there has been some research into using neural networks for HSE.
We explore two avenues within neural networks for HSE: 1) temporal data streams and 2) deep learning. Temporal data streams such as signal based learning for EEG signals Oh2018ASignals. We also see temporal-based data streams in health condition management and predictions using neural networks Wu2013Condition-basedPrediction; Guo2017ABearings. There are several examples of using deep learning for better classifying diseases. Image recognition in a clinical setting is prevalent. We see this in radiology, dermatology, pathology, as these fields are dependent on images Ravi2017DeepInformatics; DeFauw2018ClinicallyDisease; Esteva2017Dermatologist-levelNetworks. Deep imaging continues to grow in in biomedicine, such as for predicting genetic variations and altercations Wainberg2018DeepBiomedicine. Image Recognition applied to health state has a broad scope of research conducted to date and will be beyond the scope of this thesis to cover.
12.7 Robust Artificial Intelligence
Recent AI progress in domains such as vision, language, and decision-making fit the strengths of neural networks. Many characteristics desired from intelligent systems are still sought after and remain out of reach. In particular, generalizing beyond the story of observable data remains a formidable challenge for modern AI, requiring approaches that structure meaningful representations and integrate data coming from the real world. We will explore approaches that benefit from the complementary strengths of top-down and bottom-up thinking below.
Probably Approximately Correct approaches use a combination of estimation and probability as a learning approach. Turing award winner, Leslie Valiant, describes how probably approximately correct algorithms can explain how effective models are learned without direct, explicit instructions. Satisfactory solutions are generated in the absence of any theory about the problem. This approach rests on choosing the appropriate information gathering mechanism and a reasonable learning protocol Valiant1984ALearnable; Valiant2013ProbablyWorld.
Knowledge Infusion aims to endow computers with the ability to apply commonsense knowledge with human-level performance. Here the computer represents pieces of knowledge about the world with uncertainty. Knowledge infusion rules are learned from the world to reduce this uncertainty Valiant2008KnowledgeIntelligence.
Combinatorial generalization is the ability to understand and produce a new understanding of familiar components through new inferences, predictions, and behaviors from known building blocks. This signature of human intelligence to extend data from life experiences with knowledge is “infinite use of finite means” Joseph1991OnMankind; Chomsky1965MethodologicalAspects. Battaglia et al. have explored implementing a combinatorial generalization approach by biasing learning towards structured representations and computations that operate on graphs. They claim, “Just as biology uses nature and nurture cooperatively, we reject the false choice between hand-engineering and end-to-end learning, and instead advocate for an approach which benefits from their complementary strengths” Battaglia2018RelationalNetworks. They explored how to capitalize on the structured representations through nested layers of graphs called graph network blocks (GNB). Combinatorics can help answer what combination of blocks is optimal in modeling the system Guichard2016IntroductionTheory.
Other researchers have attempted to build frameworks for combinatorial generalization. A hybrid model approach of mechanically producing real-world data to feed into a neural network has been attempted by combining neural networks with a physical audio engine Wang2019ASound. This approach is mostly data-driven and doesn’t take advantage of knowledge, even though the authors claim to have achieved combinatorial generalization. One explored approach to using both data and knowledge has been to use combinatorial building blocks into neural networks Vlastelica2019DifferentiationSolvers. Representing symbols through “vectors approach to representing symbols” (VARS) allows training standard neural architectures to encode symbolic knowledge explicitly at their output layers Vankov2020TrainingGeneralization. In these cases, the knowledge put into an overarching data-driven approach is the primary driver. At the time of publication, there are no known HSE approaches that use graph network blocks or combinatorial generalization techniques.
13 Unmet Challenges and Scope of Dissertation
Especially in chronic diseases, the current medical practice continues to use sparse hospital-based biological metrics (i.e., blood tests, expensive imaging) to understand the health status of an individual. The apparent research direction ahead points to utilizing a combination of the approaches above to shift towards a continuous and abundant HSE paradigm. To achieve this requires the harmony of using personal data, estimation techniques, and modeling. Enabling data assimilation will require an intelligible understanding of how sensor data relates to health status. We must use existing medical and biological scientific domain knowledge to guide the data assimilation and conversion matrices from signal to state, as shown in Equation 1 and Equation 2 with causal intelligibility. Knowing why an individual has a particular health status will be paramount to explanation, recommendation, and treatment. Purely data-driven methods can be components in an extensive system but will have difficulty in leveraging existing knowledge. Purely knowledge-based systems do not take advantage of data giving insight into the dynamic state of the individual. For this reason, complementary methods needed to take advantage of both approaches. Combinatorial generalization approaches allow for the pooling of understanding at different levels of abstraction, the encoding of domain knowledge, and learning from data. In so far, at the time of writing, these approaches seem the most promising for leveraging computing power to aid in the HSE problem.
We will discuss the unmet challenges in this work by focusing on bridging together several components of the literature mentioned uniquely. Foremost, continuous sensing through the self, sensors, and external agents is an absolute must for in-depth high temporal resolution HSE. A graph-based approach aims to fuse the connectedness of causal reasoning with domain knowledge. By nesting these graphs into microservice blocks, we gain the ability to zoom between abstraction layers fluidly. This ease in movement allows for a flexible, holistic, and reductionist approach to work symbiotically. These blocks can contain their unique models and estimation techniques that suit their level of abstraction optimally. We will describe these efforts in the context of bioenergetics and cardiovascular health at an individual level.
14 Health State Estimation General Overview
The value of good health to an individual is largely based upon the wishes of how they wish to live. In order to practice a well-lived life, certain abilities determine the possibility of these wishes coming true. Take the example of an individual who is keen to play the guitar, ride a bicycle, travel to hiking destinations, or solve interesting computing problems. Each of these endeavors requires abilities for the individual to embark on the respective goal. For example, an individual who wishes to play the guitar and enjoy music must have the ability to use their fingers with dexterity, have the endurance to hit the strings repeatedly, and a heightened sense of hearing to engage satisfactorily in this activity. All these abilities depend upon harmoniously operating biology of neuro-muscular function, cellular metabolism, and auditory sensory cells. These biological mechanisms are in constant flux. So in order to determine how the state is continuously changing, we must understand what inputs cause change to the system state as given in Equation 1 and Equation 2.
These inputs are the events of our life in every moment aggregated in sequence. Each event interacts with our biology and causes changes in the system. The basis of this change rests in the central dogma of biology, whereby these events change our gene expression, metabolism, and other molecular processes, which then cause a change in the biological state CRICK1958OnSynthesis.. Our health state is rooted in the flow of events shaping our biology, which in turn determine our abilities to do the things we want to do. This flow is shown in Figure 35. This HSE and modeling distinctly capture these flowing elements. The proposed framework thus contains four key abstraction blocks that serve these unique needs. The first is the semantic laminae, which are the layers of information by which humans can easily interact with natural language and visualizations. In the above example, this is at the abstraction level of wanting to play the guitar. The second is the utility state block, which captures all the fundamental functionality a human has. In the above example, this refers to the abilities to capture audio and the mechanics of playing the strings. The third block is the biological block, composed of all the natural components that give rise to the utility functions, exemplified through the muscular, neuronal, and sensory biological systems that allow us to play and enjoy music from a guitar. The fourth block contains all the events that are inputs into the human system. In the case of a guitar player, they could be practice or jam sessions with other musicians. The four blocks are described below. The remainder of this chapter outlines the intricacies and interactions of these blocks.
These four blocks interact in a specific flow. Events in a person’s life change their biology, and these biological changes are reflected in the change of our utilities. The set of utilities relevant for a particular domain provides the dimensions by which to position the user state within the health state space for that domain. The flow of these four blocks is demonstrated in Figure 35. We go over the atomic construction material of this system next, the GNB.
15 Graph Network Block Structure
To begin describing the framework details, we start with the most basic component, a GNB. This approach takes inspiration from the work of Battaglia et al. to use relational induction within a system to elucidate a generalized understanding of a system Battaglia2018RelationalNetworks. Because all the parts of life are related together, a graph concept suits our needs of connectedness the best. The GNB structure is defined by a directed multi-graph, summarized into a global set of attributes. A visual description is given in Figure 36. This GNB concept represents the utility and biological blocks in this estimation framework.
: Edges travel from a “source” node to a “target” node.
: properties of each node or edge are stored as a set within the respective edge or node.
- Global attributes
: This is a set of attributes about the entire graph structure, which may be computed from the properties of the nodes and edges.
: Between two nodes, there can be edges in both directions and multiple edges in any given direction. A node may also have a self edge.
We represent the relationship between two parameters as a directed edge from the cause to its effect. Every node is a GNB with its global update. The update cycle for each block is as follows:
1. Update incoming edges: We call the update method associated with each edge coming in to block and defined within the block. For most edges, this method reads the global parameters of the source node and passes those to the target node. If needed, we can also perform more sophisticated transformations on the incoming data. An edge can be updated when there is a new update in an associated source node or an update in the relationship itself.
2. Update the nodes in the block: Every node in the block updates by applying the node’s global update function on the incoming edge parameters.
3. Global update: Once all the edges and nodes in the block updates, we can aggregate the updated values of nodes and edges to update the global parameters of the block.
15.1 Nested Microservices
Each of these GNBs can represent a set of microservices working together to provide a higher level microservice. The output of the higher level service is within the global attributes of a GNB. The purpose of using this microservice approach is to ensure the framework is able to allow for modular exchange with any biological (i.e., organ transplant, chimera) or non-biological system (i.e., metal bones). It also allows for systems and focused reductionism to work together by zooming to the appropriate block. This structure is shown in Figure 37. This design allows for incorporation of the nested service layers that biological systems provide to the human body. This hierarchy of services is shown in Figure 10.
15.2 Causal Knowledge Infusion
In the case of the directed edges within a GNB, each edge represents a relationship between two real-world entities. These entities and relationships are built initially on domain knowledge. Thus, each edge is a causal relationship that extends for causal calculus or backdoor confounder analysis (beyond the scope of this dissertation). By using the nested microservice approach, we can insert knowledge at the correct abstraction level and can scale between depth and breadth through the blocks. The knowledge sources for each edge are also stored within the edge for reference. An example of the knowledge transformation process is shown in Equation 4 and Figure 38 as an example for cardiovascular physiology. The equation dictating cardiac output CO is below, where SV is the stroke volume of blood each heartbeat ejects and HR is heart rate. CO at rest is determined by body weight. The knowledge source is from Exercise Physiology: Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications Brooks1996Exercise2.
15.3 Data-Driven Model Updates
The relationships encoded in the edges can be modified in the future when we identify two nodes that have incoming data streams of both the source and the target node. This approach allows for both domain knowledge and data-driven structures to co-exist and help each other. In Figure 38, this is shown as either low-cost or high-cost sensor data validating the value of specific nodes. If we can measure the heart rate and stroke volume, then the value of cardiac output can be known with high accuracy. We modify the base relationship of weight to cardiac output to fit the data.
15.4 Combinatorial Generalization
In any situation where we update a value of a node or edge through either a learning process or through new domain knowledge, we can recompute the global attributes of all edges and nodes within the total graph network system. These updates result in new values for all global attributes, including the utility states, resulting in a combined new generalized state of the system used in the next time iteration. Hence, this updates the value along each dimension of the user health state.
|function: Update (, , ) Input: All blocks (, , ), Updated Knowledge, Attributes, Values Output: Updated Values of (, , )’ Begin 1: for each block 2: for each edge () 3: Update all edge relationship attributes with domain knowledge. 4: Update all edge relationship attributes with learned knowledge. 4: Return ()’ 5: endfor 6: for each node () 7: Updated node attributes with new values from data. 8: Propagate updates through outgoing edges from updated nodes. 4: Return ()’ 9: endfor 10: for each set of global attributes within the block () 11: Using ()’ and ()’, compute ()’ 12: endfor 13: endfor 14: Return (’, ’, )’ End|
Algorithm 1 is the method by which we compute the estimated global attributes of each block microservice within the system for both biological and utility blocks at large. Each update cycle refreshes the utility dimensions to reflect the current state.
16 Semantic Laminae: Interactive Layers
Lamina (plural: Laminae) refers to a thin sheet. These layered sheets represent themed data in a particular state space, such as in the case of bicycle riding or guitar playing. The laminae integrate perceptual elements so that a user can interact at the abstraction level that is relevant for their needs. Parallel to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the map layer selected can be a street map, satellite imagery, or weather information depending on if the user is looking for directions, planning a camping spot, or choosing to go to a pleasant vacation destination. The underlying dimensions that support these map layers are all tied to latitude, longitude, and altitude. These are the three dimensions of space that GIS systems use. For a person to exist in Irvine, they must ensure that these three dimensions are within the appropriate range. Similarly, people generally think about their life in the semantic space of natural language. Engaging in any particular goal in life requires having the person exist in a specific range of health state dimensions. These interaction layers need a foundation concept of dimension. In the case of health, we call the dimensions, utilities.
User intent can be captured through various means. A sample browser interaction to capture intent is given in Figure 39. In this case we use natural language to query the user for a general topic of interest or regions-of-interest (ROI). If the user chooses a ROI, the associated topic is retrieved. This topic then is used to retrieve the relevant coordinates or dimensions. Mapping the coordinates of a “healthy pregnancy” ROI or “marathon running” topic in the state space requires matching relevant laminae and dimensions that are of interest to the user intent. Each lamina has a name, a set of dimensions, and a set of ROIs. ROIs each contain a label, an enclosed boundary, and a set of attributes. The operation of the laminae within the developed system occurs through four components, which are explained in Figure 40. The first is a user interface where the goal or domain of interest is entered. The second component uses the user input to retrieve all laminae that relevant to the user. The user can select a lamina to view from this list. When selected, the visualization loads the utility dimensions and plots the regions of interest on the user interface. The user health state location may or may not be shown on this visualization. The state space shown on the screen can be selected to be the general health state space of all possibilities within the domain, or confined to just the user’s own health state space. This whole system relies upon the set of utility dimensions, which we discuss next.
17 Utilities: The Dimensions of Health
Utilities describe the fundamental dimensions of health state, akin to the latitude, longitude, and altitude of GIS systems. Utilities are the fundamental abilities of a living human. In this work, we define five parent nodes for the utility taxonomy based upon consensus literature in the life sciences. These major categories include movement, sensing, thinking, managing homeostasis, and reproduction. These primary groups have many nested sub-dimensions within them. The importance of utilities rests in abstraction away from the material cause of existence and instead focuses on the final cause of use, as described in Figure 11. The utilities generally arise from biological underpinnings but are not dependent on biological function. A person may have a biological joint or a metal joint. The end utility is the same: to move the body in a specific manner.
As mentioned above, the dimensions of health state space are defined through the utilities they provide. Utilities serve as a parameter with a particular value or categorical assignment. Structured taxonomy of human utility state space in this work is given in a simplified version to demonstrate the concept of utility space. These five categories within this block are shown in Figure 41. If “movement” is the parent node, then there are many child nodes that are part of movement. One of the child nodes in Figure 41 is the flexibility of the skeletal system, which encapsulates the entire summary of joint function in the body. A list of joint articulation utilities is in Table 3 to show how there can be categorical strings, Booleans, floats, or integers as attributes for each utility. Because the majority of a person is generally composed of biology, we need to connect how utilities arise from biological systems.
|Joints||Joint Classification||Range of Motion|
|proximal radioulnar joint||Pivot joint||190|
|distal radioulnar joint||Pivot joint||210|
|median atlanto-axial joint||Pivot joint||50|
|proximal interphalangeal joints||Hinge joint||90|
|distal interphalangeal joints||Hinge joint||100|
|talocrural joint||Hinge joint||50|
|subtalar joint||Hinge joint||60|
|distal tibiofibular joint||Hinge joint||45|
|carpometacarpal joint||Saddle joint||53|
|sternoclavicular joint||Saddle joint||35|
|incudomalleolar joint||Saddle joint||20|
|metacarpophalangeal joints||Condyloid joint||40|
|metatarsophalangeal joints||Condyloid joint||45|
|hip joint||Ball and socket joint||300|
|shoulder joint||Ball and socket joint||320|
18 Biological Blocks: Natural Micro-Services
This block contains the material cause of what humans are composed of Falcon2006AristotleCausality. The biological components all serve certain utilities. The isolated state of biology has been traditionally the study of bioscience and is the target of health state study in most medical fields. These components nest in various levels of scientific and spatial abstraction, which can be molecular to an organ system. The microservice architecture for the GNBs allows for representing these levels of abstraction. The nesting is represented in GNB format in Figure 42.
Personalized information that is in this structure includes anatomical, physiological, cellular, and signaling interactions. Demographic information about an individual such as age and gender may also be used to personalize the biological blocks. Genetic information is stored as relationship or node attributes that modify a generic model. Biological systems are highly complex and always in flux. A changing system inherently is temporally dependent on its inputs. Temporal data about an individual is captured in the details of their life events.
19 Events: Inputs to Life
What changes our health state, and when does it happen? Every event at each moment of the day affects our health. Investigating the significant factors that impact health, we see that life events are the central premise behind changes in health state. As shown in Figure 43, these factors are all part of daily life events for an individual.
A person’s life history is traditionally documented with a biography. A biography consists of a series of events that flow over time. These events of life happen at varying time-scales. Take, for example, nanosecond molecular interactions of cell receptor binding compared to a four-year college degree. The difference between these time scales is 16 orders of magnitude. The temporal scope of life events is shown visually in Figure 44. Event architecture allows for a flexible design where various event types are recorded. Within any particular time window, a set of events will contain inputs that the change in biology, a phenomenon constant from conception until death.
The HSE framework classifies events into three main categories. The first category, the exposome events, are all events happening outside the body of the person, including all environmental exposures of light, sound, weather, pollution, and any other physical attribute outside the skin. This environment can also include social events or interactions with external people or agents. The second category of events, the life events, includes all events the person’s body engages in from a molecular level to the whole body. At a coarse level, these events include any activity, food intake, sleep, or any general life events as described by the Personicle system or Daniel Kahneman’s day reconstruction method Oh2017FromChronicles; Kahneman2004AMethod. At a granular level, this could include events of organ systems such as the heart (such as an arrhythmia event, volume overload event, pressure overload event), pancreas, or gut. Even more granular are events such as reactions of molecules such as ultraviolet light damaging DNA. The third category of events is called neurological events, including all events that are perceived by the mind. These events are generally subjective in nature and include events such as joy, stresses, or dreams. In summary, the three classifications of stored events are everything outside the skin, inside the skin, inside the mind.
Events happening to a person are captured and then stored in a DB system with three containers. The first container is an event stream, where interval-based events can be stored and retrieved. The second container is the stream database, where continuous data streams can be stored and retrieved. The third container is a specialized version of the stream database, where the location data stream can be stored and retrieved. A table characterizing this storage schema is in Table 4. Operationally, the event module connects to incoming data streams through parsers and adapters. These data are stored in a Raw file DB and redundantly backed up as the most original form of the user’s data. After cleaning the data of erroneous data through predetermined filters, the data is translated to either the event format or the stream format and copied into the Event DB or Stream DB appropriately. The location stream in the Stream DB then fetches environmental data at the particular location and time stamps the user has data to gather weather, pollution, demographics and any other requested geospatial data. Both the Event DB and Stream DB are used in the Interface Event Retrieval process, which we will go over in the following section. A visualization of this framework is given in Figure 45.
|Stream||Field name||Data type|
|Real valued Data Stream||Timestamp||Timestamp|
|Location Data Stream||Timestamp||Timestamp|
We conclude the introduction to the four major components of the HSE framework. To set up the system, we jump into initializing the system in the next section.
20 Initializing the System
In order to begin the state estimation process for the individual, we need to populate the four main components concerning the person. The state space of all possible dimensions of health is vast, and to narrow the state space to an appropriate level, we query the user for their particular interest. Given this intent, we can give a list of laminae that match the intent. The user can then select to visualize a particular lamina. Once this lamina is chosen, the relevant dimensions must be populated to generate the state space. This process requires retrieving the utility dimensions and the supporting biological blocks, as visualized in Figure 46.
Obtain User Intent. By providing a certain intent, the user can request to view their health state on a lamina that is their interest. Similarly, if a computing agent wants to understand a particular aspect of the health state, it may also have an intent.
Retrieve Associated Semantic Laminae. Given this intent, relevant layers are retrieved from a database with domain knowledge of the particular query intent.
Populate Utility State Dimensions. These layers are placed upon their respective dimensions of utility.
Populate Biological Blocks. Given this set of utilities, the system then populates all relevant biological components that determine the utility state.
21 State Update Method
There is constant flux within an individual’s personal health state space (PHSS). We must be able to assign an accurate location within the PHSS for state estimation. Understanding this location in real-time is best powered by multi-modal data sources that update the health estimation. For example, monitoring a cardiovascular health state is useful to both endurance athletes and heart disease patients. Estimation techniques have been of great interest in designing many applications, but health applications will require increasingly deep biological knowledge layers to define and estimate health states. This process uses the knowledge generated graph structure model from the system initialization of an individual to deliver updated states. To compute the state of health using this flow, we need to continually compute the individual’s position along each dimension of utility from any new source of data or knowledge. Below is outlined the step-by-step overview of how this occurs. Figure 47 shows a visual flow of how these steps carry out.
Initialize System and Connect to Personicle. As given above, the set of utilities and relevant biological components are populated. The person’s event and data history are then loaded from a personicle.
Time Based Updates Any nodes with self-edges update within the biological blocks. This will be the only update within the whole cycle if there is no data in the personicle. The only piece of information used here is the time since the last update.
Event Based Updates. If there is an event that has occurred within the personicle, the interface event retrieval system gathers any events that connect to the populated biological states. The attributes of these events determine the change in a particular biological block. Interface event retrieval is in more detail below.
Observed Biology If there are direct observations in the personicle of any biological components (nodes or edges), they are updated.
Observed Utilities If there are direct observations in the personicle of any utility dimensions (nodes or edges), they are updated.
Update Utility dimensions. All estimated values are propagated forward along the directed edges to update the utility nodes required to show the position of the user in the health state space.
Visualization of Current Health State Position. The updated values for the utility states are then shown as an updated position on the selected visual lamina to the user.
21.1 Interface Event Retrieval
Interface events are particular sub-events with specified attributes that are responsible for a particular change in health state, interfacing between the actions in our lives and the state of our health. After combining general events and data streams from different sources, we specify the interface events as logical statements. Each interface event has direct causal edges on particular biological nodes. These events and relationships are well studied in biomedical literature and can be defined as a combination of data and event streams using an event operator language. When we detect an interface event, the relationship with the biological variables contributes to the update of the health state. This work will retrieve interface events from five main event categories in chapter 5. These categories include nutrition, exercise, neurological, environment, and sleep events. Logical statement examples are given below describing left ventricular volume overload cardiac events (VolOverload), and pressure overload left ventricle cardiac events (PressOverload).
Representations of these events are given below:
The state update mechanism uses the same node and edge structure as new data arrives. In order to change the graph structure itself, we need to update the GNB model itself.
22 Individual Dynamic Model Updates
To improve the performance of the GNB model, we use both data and domain knowledge approaches to edit the GNB structure itself. We update the node attributes, edge relationships between nodes, adding new nodes, adding new edges, or removing edges and nodes. There are four key methods by which these updates can occur, one based in knowledge-driven approaches, and the other three based on data-driven approaches.
Knowledge-based approaches reference a knowledge DB in order to establish the graph structure. When a scientist discovers new knowledge or a new genetic association, the system can access these updates to update the individual GNB. An overview is given below in a list format. Figure 48 describes these four approaches visually.
Knowledge Update. If there are new static knowledge that is associated with the GNB or individual (such as their genetic information), they apply to the relationships within the graph.
Event Mining. Event mining establishes relationships on a temporal scale between events. This work does not directly address event mining. It provides a framework that allows for this type of approach in future research.
Parallel Observations. When data is observed regarding two nodes that are connected, the relationship can be updated using the data relationships. If the predictive quality is suitable, the respective edges are updated with this relationship.
Cross-Modal Estimation. If there are multiple relationships with a certain node, they can be used in combination to learn their relationship to the target node. If the predictive quality is suitable, the node updates with this relationship to its sources.
The above two sections cover the process of how we estimate the health state and continuously modify the graph structure model of an individual to reflect what we learn from data. In order to verify if these approaches satisfies the needs of HSE, we compare this framework overview against the design requirements.
23 Revisiting the Design Requirements
Based on the discussions so far, we have defined the following design principles essential to the HSE framework in chapter 2. Below describes how we meet these particular demands with the above framework.
Participation with User. We begin addressing the design requirements by directly engaging with the user’s intent in the semantic laminae. This is the root of instantiating the system and ensuring that it works towards the user’s goals.
Encompass Holistic Definition of Health. Because a holistic definition of health goes beyond biology, we abstract health needs into utility states.
Capture Connectedness. In order to capture how aspects of health are constantly evolving as a system, we choose to use a graph-based approach.
Flexible and Modular System. By nesting the graphs into blocks, we can take advantage of microservice architecture to represent and model the components of interest.
Zoom Fluidly Between Abstraction Scales. These nested blocks allow the user or system to interact at an abstraction level that is appropriate for the situation. Scales can range from molecular to person level health.
Causal and Explainable. To have a causal and explainable system, we choose to have directed edges in the graph that represent causal relationships. Understanding the root of how something is changing can be traced in reverse on this causal pathway.
Domain Knowledge Integration. To determine what directed edges to add to the system, we reference domain knowledge to establish the relationships as a cold start instantiated personal model.
Diverse Data Fusion and Transformation. Using the high-level abstraction of events, biology, and utility, we can transform various types of data into these three layers.
Perpetually Updating. When new data arrives into the system, we can propagate updates to other nodes via the directed edges.
Personalized Modeling. Physiologic function, psychological function, risk, and any other attributes that are related to genetics, life history, age, or other demographics data can modify the relationships between nodes to personalize the graph network.
Precision through Understanding and Learning. When data about two related nodes arrive in parallel, we can use learning approaches to characterize the relationship better. The general domain knowledge relationship can then be updated to reflect a precise model for the individual.
Predictive and Preventive Capability. By using this constantly adapting network, we can simulate inputs to the graph and compute future outputs. If a future output is undesirable, we can prevent it by testing inputs that lead to a desirable future state.
In summary, the structure of this framework satisfies the design requirements we set out to address. In the next chapter, we dive into the details of how we can operationally implement such a framework for a real person.
24 Experimental Overview
Applying the concept described in Chapter 4 within a real experiment set-up provided a few challenges. First, there is no dataset in existence at the level of detail required for this research, posing the most significant barrier to implementing this research. Although a great task to build such a comprehensive data collection pipeline, we decided to create the dataset organically to specification around CRF. We chose to focus on a single subject, with a personalized approach. We also needed data over a long temporal span to show how the health state is changing. Data collection is also necessary to be non-intrusive to cause minimal observer effect. We also want these experiments replicated within the scientific and clinical settings. Hence we chose mostly commercially available hardware and software. These decisions resulted in exemplifying the state estimation framework in chapter 4 within real-world settings and allow for using complex personal data. The next four subsections cover these experimental methods in detail.
As we want the state estimation to provide continuous estimates over time, the most appropriate experimental approach would be a longitudinal one on a specific subject, rather than a cross-sectional study of many individuals. Longitudinal studies consist of repeated observations and measurements of the same variables, such as people, over periods (could be decades at a time). The data collected is a combination of quantitative and qualitative exposures and outcomes data of the controlled variables. This type of study is useful in determining relationships between risk factors and disease developmentCaruana2015LongitudinalStudies.
A cross-functional observational study, on the other hand, analyzes data from a population with multiple variables at a specific point in time, often used in cohort studies Lee1994OddsData. These studies can be useful to understand the prevalence of disease in a clinic-based sample Setia2016MethodologyStudies. However, with no information with the influence of time, the difficulty is to derive causal relationships Caruana2015LongitudinalStudies.
Because we are trying to build personal estimation models, the incoming data must only be from the individual. Population-level data is helpful as a part of the knowledge-based edges, but cannot be used to personalize the graph network for the individual. For this reason, we choose to have an N=1 approach. N=1 approaches are also gaining traction in clinical settings. An N of 1 trial is a clinical trial in which one patient is the entire scope of the case study. These studies include experimental and control interventions in the design. The goal of this type of trial is to determine the optimal intervention for a patient, given data-driven criteria Lillie2011TheMedicine. While N=1 studies are not highly common in the medical community, Lillie proposes further use of this method given the “contemporary focus on individualized medicine.” There has been further research conducted supporting the feasibility of N=1 clinical trials Guyatt1990TheExperience; McQuay1994DextromethorphanDesign; Odineal2020EffectTrial. Table 5 lists several simple experimental designs to conduct these N=1 trials. When updating the state, we use an A-B method using domain knowledge to establish a causal relationship. When we update the model using data-driven approaches, we use the A-B-A-B experimental method to capture many instances of A and B and then derive the relationship.
|A-B||Quasi experiment||Often the only possible method|
|A-A1-A||Experiment||Placebo test design where A1 is a placebo|
|A-B-A||Experiment||Withdrawal Study where effect of B can be established|
|A-B-A-B||Experiment||Further Validation of Above Study Design|
25.3 Multi-Modal Fusion
We explored the vast multitude of data acquisition approaches in Chapter 3. To have the most holistic and high-resolution health state estimate, we need data of all types about the individual. This data range includes low-cost sensors that have a high temporal resolution or low user burden and high-cost sensors that may only have sparse readings. This approach takes inspiration from sensor fusion approaches that aim to use all possible information to get better situational awareness, precision, and accuracy. Sensor fusion combines sensory data from different sources of uncertainty but provides greater insight when combined. There may be “uncertainty reduction” as the aggregation of the data can be more dependable than each piece alone Gustafsson2013StatisticalFusion; Elmenreich2002SensorSystems. Distributed sensors are represented in a network with dynamically changing topology between each data source Xiao2005AConsensus. Numerical representations of sensor fusion, such as the “certainty grid,” create probabilistic geographic mapping given the assimilation of sensor data Moravec1989SensorRobots. Our approach uses a centralized sensor fusion approach, where all sensors are uploaded together into a single system for analysis. When appropriate, we use weighted averages of various sensors depending on their data quality to derive the fusion.
25.4 Living-Labs Implementation in the Real World
The final choice involved in choosing methods for the following experiments was to use devices and software that is readily available to the public. Other than one of the exposome sensors, the entire suite of products used for the experiments is available in the consumer goods market without any special restrictions. We chose this approach to reduce the burden of developing proprietary components, demonstrate how the fusion of various sources is key for novel health state insight, and scale and implement these types of experiments easily for future researchers or for those who wish to implement these experiments for themselves. Furthermore, the available sensors are minimally intrusive to collect the best continuous data streams in a natural setting. Nobel Laureate Richard Thaler’s work inspired the thought process in behavioral economics regarding nudges that unconsciously incentive our behaviors Thaler2016BehavioralFuture. By designing the data collection to be mostly unconscious, we can help ensure that observer effects are at a minimum, and the data represents real life most accurately. Observer effects are also known as the Hawthorne effect, a type of response in which people modify their behavior when they are observed. This response can change the integrity of the research and relationships between variables Salkind2010EncyclopediaDesign. Aims for quantifying the Hawthorne effect have been conducted Adair1984TheArtifact and specifically in clinical trials McCarney2007TheTrial; DeAmici2000ImpactAnesthesia. By having measurements as a background part of normal daily life, these observer effects are minimized.
The first step in starting these experiments is to collect data about the subject. We will review the tools for data compilation in the next section.
To fuel the HSE framework, we need to collect various types of data. The data needs are dictated by the user’s intent and any biological or utility parameters related to this intent. We use a combination of hardware and software alongside public data resources and open source-based tools to collect data about the user within our scope of CRF.
26.1 Collection Tools
There are three main central hardware components: a computer, mobile phone, and wearable described in Figure 50, which tether together all the sensors and data collection through local or cloud network connections. Because the user participates in many activities, the suite of activity sensors includes rowing machines, cycle ergometers, heart rate, and cadence accelerometers, as shown in Figure 51. The data streams resulting as an output from these devices are explained further in Figure 57 and Figure 58. We capture biological measurements about the user through a host of smart-connected devices, as shown in Figure 52. The ability of these devices to track and record metadata alongside the primary sensor without any extra burden to the user is critical towards encouraging data collection and reducing friction to use. This reduction in friction is part of the real-world implementation concept as people need to have a seamless experience to be nudged towards engaging with these tools. Some measurements are still challenging to capture through smart devices due to this need for user engagement.
In this experiment, all these measurements are related to body surface measurements are captured with traditional analog tools, as shown in Figure 53. Integration with costly clinical tools is also an important factor in using data for HSE. These types of tools can aid in ensuring the accuracy of lower-cost sensors and validate their use in the implementation. They can also serve as a ground truth reference from which low-cost sensors can track the change in the state. The four clinical tools that are used in this work to demonstrate this integration (Figure 54). Three sets of hardware are used in sensing the environment of the individual. The first includes synchronizing the GPS location from the mobile phone and wearable with the nearest public sensors and data. The second involved a host of readily available IoT devices that monitor the home setting (Figure 55). The third includes a low-cost constructed gas sensor kit linked to a Raspberry Pi (Figure 56). An overview of these hardware components and the outputs they produce is in Table 6.
|Chest Strap||Garmin||Electrical conductance||Heart Rate|
|Rowing Ergometer||Concept2||Strain Gauge||Power|
|Smart Watch (Fenix 5)||Garmin||Optical||Heart Rate|
|Plumb Bob||Generic||Gravity||Body Alignment|
|Spirometer||AirMD||Air Pitot||FEV1 / FVC|
|Pulse Oximeter||Hypoxico||Optical||O2 Saturation|
|Breathalyzer||BAC Track||EtOH||Blood Alcohol|
|Blood Glucose Monitor||One Touch||Glucose||Glucose|
|Weight Scale||Weight Gurus||Strain Gauge||Weight|
|Electrical Impedance||Body Fat Percentage|
|Gas Analyzer||Lumen||CO2 / O2||Respiratory Exchange|
|Blood Pressure Machine||Balance||Pressure||Blood Pressure|
|Smoke Detector||Nest||CO2 / CO||Gas / Smoke|
|Smart Plug||SmartLife||Electrical Usage||Electrical Usage|
Software that was used as a sensor to track the user includes two varieties. The first variety of software sensors directly query the user for input. For the mental state of the individual, the open-source tracking mobile application (app) Nomie was used. The Sleep Cycle app was used to gather information about the mental state before falling asleep and asses the mood and perceived quality of sleep upon waking up. The second variety of software used as a sensor operates through background tracking that does not interact with the user. Google Timeline captures location history and the personicle of the individual. LifeCycle app is a secondary personicle capture. Garmin MoveIQ is a third source that captures background activity personicle. The RescueTime mobile app and desktop applications track screen time. Time Out software tracks desktop computer visual strain by engaging with the user for screen breaks. The software used to track the individual is summarized in Table 7. Public datasets are the third source of “tracking” we use about an individual. Based on the GPS location and timestamp, we match the location to the current nearest sensors for various environmental streams. These environmental streams are in Table 7. We will discuss the details of any relevant sensing in the sections below. The Appendix contains further details on hardware, software, and public data sources used in this work.
|Neurological||Active||Mobile App||Sleep Cycle||Mood|
|Personicle||Background||Wearable||Garmin Move IQ||Activity Type|
|Screenome||Active||Desktop||Time Out||Eye Strain|
The scope of implementation around CRF determined the tools we choose for data collection regarding events that can power state estimation. The data collection methods focus on capturing the details of five categories regarding the subject’s life events. These events were chosen because they have a well-understood impact on health state in large bodies of literature. They also compose a large portion of the daily life of individuals. We will describe these five categories in the next sections.
All instances where the user is conducting any movement, physical activity, and exercise are captured in detail. Movement and physical activity are defined as energy expended to move, occuring through any physical action taken. Exercise, in particular, is defined as an intentional activity designed around exerting effort to improve physical fitness. These terms have been well described in the literature Caspersen1985DearI. Both activities at large and exercise events are logged in the user’s personicle. The activities at large are recorded as events with time intervals of 2 minutes. Because exercise events provide a higher insight into the operational status of both the utility and biological states, they are an excellent event source to capture in detail for state estimation. Therefore exercise events are captured at 1-second intervals. Figure 57 and Figure 58 show sample exercise event data-streams. Table 8 lists all the sensor streams collected during the activity.
|Biology||Stages + Garmin||Aerobic TSS||TSS|
|Biology||Stages + Garmin||Anaerobic TSS||TSS|
|Biology||Garmin||Heart Rate Delta||bpm|
Epidemiological data suggest that food is the most influential event on human health, according to the Journal of the American Medical Association Murray2013TheFactors. Nutrition includes all energy or nourishment obtained from food intake. All nutrition events include any food consumption that occurs. Nutrition events are tracked at each instance of food or beverage ingestion through images. Images are run through the Calorie Mama platform for object detection. Objects are then verified for labels and weights by the user. The app references the United States Department of Agriculture DB, extracting nutritional content of each item and then can aggregate the nutrition intake per meal. The nutrition data is sent to HealthKit on the user’s mobile phone as a central data aggregator. Metadata of timestamps and location are also captured.
Understanding the mental perception of each individual’s state is a subjective component of a health state. Neurological events include stress, mood, and even one’s screen time. Stress, in the medical context, is a physical, mental, or emotional factor that causes psychological or physical strain to an individual. Stress also includes an individual’s response to a change. One’s mood is a temporary state of feeling that the individual experiences, reflecting their current state of mind. Each digital interaction also gives insight into neurological events. The screenome consists of all interactions with one’s screen. The screenome reflects the use of digital media and screen time to give insight into how individuals are choosing to spend their time Reeves2020TimeProject. Although viewed as subjective, there are clear physical impacts on human physiology, as described in Chapter 2. Therefore, the mental state of the individual is in both subjective and objective formats. Stress and mood are captured subjectively through a direct query to the user, as given in Table 7. Stress is captured objectively with heart rate variability (HRV) through the Garmin Fenix 5 smartwatch, as HRV is a strong indicator of stress. Lastly, the screenome is collected through background tracking software RescueTime and Time Out, also shown in Table 7.
This portion of data collection includes time spent in the prone position. Prone position activities refer to the body in a horizontal position. The individual may be awake or asleep while tracking this activity. Sleep is a condition in which the nervous system is relatively inactive, eyes are closed, and postural muscles relaxed. During sleep, consciousness is typically suspended. Sleep data is collected through objective and subjective sensors. The objective sensors include ambient noise, accelerometer-based movement, heart rate, HRV, temperature, humidity, and timestamps. Subjective measures include mood before sleep and perceived quality of sleep upon waking up.
The external environment directly impacts various components of health, as described in Chapter 2. The external environment includes all factors outside the body that affect the individual; these can be local factors in one’s home like lighting or broader environmental exposures such as the air. We use both public GIS data and devices that are precisely placed within the immediate vicinity of the user to collect environmental information. GIS data is collected through public sensors near the user’s time and location. Public data about the user covers a large variety of data types, as shown in Figure 59. Hyperlocal systems gather data about the user’s in-room environment. These streams come from the IoT devices and the Raspberry Pi. Table 9 lists the sensors we use to build the exposome stream for the individual.
|Open Street Maps||Altitude|
|Hyper Local||Sensor Push||Temperature|
|Decibel-X||Sound Level (dB)|
|Sleep Cycle||Sound Level (dB)|
|Carbon Monoxide (CO)|
|Large Particulate (LPG)|
|Volatile Compounds (tVOC)|
|Ethanol / Fuel|
|Carbon Dioxide (CO2)|
We use this detailed collection of data for the event and stream DB system to power the HSE.
26.3 Biology and Utility Direct Measurements
Data capture about the biology of an individual is done concurrently with many of the events, as shown above. Data from smart devices and manual tools are shown in Figure 52 and Figure 53. The data capture of utility in the case of this experiment is the power output capability of the individual, also captured concurrently with activities. One additional method of biological data capture is with images of the user. Jaw shape and facial proportions are associated with testosterone levels. Here we use social media images of the individual to estimate the facial proportions and shape and derive a relative score of testosterone for the individual Nag2018Cross-modalEstimation. Testosterone levels affect the cardiovascular health of individuals and the ability to recover from fatigue Barrett-Connor1995TestosteroneMen; Shores2014TestosteroneStudy; Axell2006ContinuousMice; Budgett1998FatigueSyndrome. From a user’s full social media data, images were filtered that had a high-quality resolution and direct frontal view of the subject. Open Computer Vision resources were used to pinpoint the face height-to-width ratio. An example of a photo analysis is shown in Figure 60. The theme of this biological measurement technique from a computing perspective is that we can garner a plethora of information regarding the subject’s health if we use modern image recognition techniques. We also investigated these images for skin health through pigmentation tracking and wrinkle detection. This investigation is shown here as part of the image-based health tracking theme, but it will not be used in further CRF estimations. The appendix contains resources used in data collection, analysis, and visualization in Table 15.
27 HSE System Initialization
The precursors to the state estimation system require having the above data streams and background work. Next, we begin the process of implementing the system for the test subject. The first sequence of steps is initializing the system, as explained in Chapter 4. We run through this process to set up the GNB structure, created once the user specifies a domain or intent. Following this, we can populate the relevant layers of utility dimensions and biological layers. This section walks through all these steps for the test subject.
27.1 Translating User Intent
To start the HSE process for the subject, we begin by inquiring the user for their intent or domain of interest. The test subject’s chosen interest in the experiment is in the realm of cycling. We display a lamina of cycling types to the user for visualization and interaction, as shown in Figure 61. The user can see the relationships of different types of cycling on a particular health state space. The proximity of the various types of cycling shows the similarity of the health state required to participate. For example, BMX, track, and downhill styles of riding are all quite comparable on the upper left-hand side of Figure 61. Similarly, cross country, road, and gravel are also close together. Enduro riding sits in between these two clusters. The subject selects interest in the disciplines of enduro and gravel riding and wishes to see the health state in the context of this region-of-interest in the lamina. The next step for the system is to generate the utility dimensions for this lamina.
27.2 Retrieval of Relevant Utility State Space
Given the intent of cycling by the user, the knowledge DB retrieves the dimensions of endurance, specifically the Critical Power (CP) curve, to display this specific lamina. The CP is the amount of power that can be applied maximally in a given period. It serves as the tolerance or biological threshold for the whole body in exercise (such as in cycling) for an individual Jones2017TheExercise; Poole2016CriticalPhysiology. For example, a 5-minute CP is the maximum amount of power an individual can produce for 5 minutes. An untrained person can generally produce about 2 Watts per kilogram of body weight. For a 70kg person, this would be 140 Watts of power. A world-class athlete can produce around 7 Watts/kg, sustaining 490 Watts of power for a 70kg person. CP is usually shown as maximum power for each one-second interval of time from 1 second to several hours. Every living individual has a CP utility dimension value for producing power for 1 second, 2 seconds, 3 seconds…60 seconds (1 minute)…3600 seconds (1 hour). For measurement of these dimensions up to 5 hours, there are 18,000 utility state dimensions (5 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds). There are many other laminae related to cycling using utility dimensions of skill, sensing, or thinking abilities. We do not cover these in the dissertation for the sake of brevity. This selection of CP as part of the dimensions within the GNB of movement is shown in the utility state space in Figure 62.
27.3 Populating Biological Blocks
Once we have retrieved the relevant utility dimensions, such as CP, we need to retrieve next what nodes in the biological block determine the value of these dimensions. There are two challenges to implement this. First, there is a breadth of biology that is needed to explain a particular utility dimension. For example, if the utility is walking ability for movement, it is insufficient only to understand the isolated biology of the toes or knees. The whole biomechanics and bioenergetics of walking must be populated into the system for a proper understanding of walking. A superficial understanding is a good start, but understanding the depth of details about the system will give a better picture of the factors that are changing the utility state. The next two sections cover these two challenges of breadth and depth in the biological GNBs.
Breadth of Biology
To capture the parent nodes that are directly related to the utility dimensions of CP, we reference the pertinent domain knowledge of human bioenergetics Brooks1996Exercise2. Bioenergetics focuses on how cells transform energy in cells, tissues, and organisms, which may be done by storing, transferring or consuming energy Nature.com2020BioenergeticsNature. Depending on the duration of the energy need, there are four significant systems the human body uses to move. These four systems of interest are in Figure 64 overlaid on top of the utility dimensions. The dimensional boundaries of enduro and gravel riding (the user’s selected region-of-interest), the utility dimensions to focus on are from the 100 second CP value to the 1,200 second CP value (20 minutes). The biological energy system connected to these utility dimensions is aerobic glycolysis, as shown in Figure 64. Aerobic glycolysis ability is synchronous with CRF and measured in units of VO2max (mL O2 / minute / kg).
Given this target system, we populate the range of involved biological nodes at the gross organ level. The organ systems involved in this process and the edges between them are given in Figure 65. Each organ has a set of major global attributes describing its microservice output to the system. The microservice edge relationships are captured in the equations in Figure 65. The global attributes of these organ nodes are in Table 10. Next, we dive into deeper layers of biology by expanding these organ level nodes.
|Organ Node||Global Attribute|
|Lungs||O2 diffusion, CO2 diffusion|
|Blood||O2 carrying capacity, heat capacity (through fluid volume)|
|Vasculature||O2 diffusion, CO2 diffusion, density|
|Muscles||O2 extraction, rate of ATP synthesis, myofibril force|
Depth of Biology
To face the challenge of biological depth, we build the GNB with deeper layers of biology. We will address four layers of depth in the experimental model. The first and second layers are the system layer and organ layer, as described in the broad sense above. We then dive into the tissue level and the molecular cell biology level in further depth. For the cardiac (heart) system, we see there are several key tissues that comprise the heart. The left ventricle is the tissue chamber that is responsible for cardiac output, which is the key attribute of interest for the utility dimensions at hand. This nesting of microservices in the GNB for biological depth is shown in Figure 66.
Within the left ventricle, there is a highly complex network of molecules that signal changes in the tissue. These changes include growth or degradation of tissue and cellular proteins through changing gene expression. Events are the primary input that alters gene expression. The understanding of these networks is usually stored in natural language within the body of traditional literature. Recently, graph DB systems that store domain knowledge in cellular signaling have also started flourishing. Cytoscape is the most popular of this graph-based knowledge and research systems Otasek2019CytoscapeAnalysis. Harnessing the knowledge in these systems, along with traditional literature, helps to populate the molecular networks for the tissue of interest. Figure 67 describes the process by which mitochondrial biogenesis networks for this experimental GNB is populated from public domain knowledge. Domain knowledge of how events impact this network are also curated from traditional literature to build this knowledge graph. The process of using public graph networks of biology and traditional literature is also shown for cardiac tissue in Figure 68. The biological network for cardiac tissue is sourced from Cytoscape, and the event relationships to these nodes are sourced from traditional literature.
These knowledge graphs at the molecular level populate the deepest level of the personal GNB structure in this experiment. Now that we have the HSE GNB system built at all the desired levels of abstraction, we can plug incoming data streams to see how they are changing the state.
28 Health State Update
After setting up the GNB structure for the individual’s intent, the next step is to use the network to show how the state is changing. Time intervals at which to update the state were chosen to be one day. There are two overarching approaches to update the state. The first approach uses event data streams about the individual as inputs. Events can include time intervals where there is no other data stream other than time itself. The second approach is measuring a biological or utility attribute directly through a sensor, and we use that information to arrive at an updated estimation of the health state. This section addresses these two approaches in separate sub-sections below.
28.1 Time and Event Based HSE Updates
The first update approach uses temporal streams as events that perturb the GNB. Temporal streams are understood as events in this work. Not all events impact the health state regarding the utility dimensions of interest. To detect events that are relevant in changing the health state we are focused on, we need to know what types of features to look for and characterize the impact of that event on the health state. This process is called interface event retrieval.
Interface Event Retrieval
“In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information” Hookway2014Interface. In the context of our work in HSE, the two sides that exchange information are the events in our life with the state of our health. Interface events bridge this gap by describing how to transform a particular event attribute into an input value for nodes within the HSE GNB structure. For events used in this experiment, we use validated aggregation metrics that connect the events to how they impact the health state of CRF. For activities, we use three algorithms of Chronic Training Load (CTL) Evans1985CardiovascularTraining., Gravity Ordered Velocity Stress Score (GOVSS) Wallace2014AResponses, and High Power Activity (HPA). In a nutshell, CTL captures the long-term (42-day rolling average) of cardiac volume overload output Evans1985CardiovascularTraining.. GOVSS captures the work done against gravity and inertia to produce motion Wallace2014AResponses. HPA captures high-intensity activity that stimulates muscle fiber growth and motor unit training adaptations. HPA interface events are any 5 second periods with over 10 watts per kg of power. The extraction of these features from activity data is shown for the two years of test subject data in Figure 70. Using the time-stamps from the event stream, we can also inspect the circadian pattern of when particular interface events occur during the day. We show this for both activity events and environmental events in Figure 71.
In this experiment, we summarize the impact score of exercise (Figure 70), sleep as a total quality metric, food through relevant nutrients, stress through a combined score of objective and subjective data, and environmental pollution as quantity per day. The algorithms for these computations are given in the appendix. The CTL, sleep, and stress scores per day are presented in Figure 72, preparing the system to now propagate the effects of these events into the GNB.
28.2 Observation Based HSE Updates
When we have instances of directly measuring the utility or biological values, we use these values in priority over the estimated values provided from event-based inputs. For the biological layers of the GNB, these values are provided at the organ level, or system level through the sensor collection. Examples of these values include body weight and heart rate. The node that is measured may have parent nodes that can be updated. In this experiment, we use resting heart rate and weight to derive stroke volume of the left ventricle, and thus cardiac output. For the utility states, we directly measure CP and weight during instances that indicate maximal power output. These measurements can be retrieved through looking at power intervals where heart rate is within ten beats of age-defined maximal heart rate.
28.3 Propagating Updates
Using the data streams of these events and direct observations, we feed new input values into the connected nodes as described in Algorithm 1. An example time-lapse of this update cycle for the CRF case is given in Figure 73. We use this update system to compute the health state of the individual on a daily cycle interval for the two years of data collection (2018-2019) on the test subject’s GNB structure. The results in this section show updated values for all the layers in the GNB. Through the story of queries by the user, domain expert, or interfacing computing agent may have, we describe the health state update results in various levels of depth.
Q1 User: How ready am I for the race?
The original intent of the user was to be ready for enduro and gravel cycling. Based on the user weight, the power to produce at minimum for these events is 2.5 watts per kg for sustained periods of over 1000 seconds, equating to 152 Watts of power for this particular CP dimension. If we can estimate the utility dimension of this particular value over time, we can see when the user is capable of participating in the races they desire to do. Figure 74 shows this particular utility dimension, with the green top section showing if the user is in the health state to fulfill their desire. We see the user has a total of 5 periods in the last two years where the user was within the appropriate utility state. Figure 75 shows the values of the entire 18,000 utility dimensions of CP (x-axis) at four different time points throughout the last two years. Figure 74 shows just a summary daily value of the HSE for one of these dimensions over time.
Q2 User: How does the air I breathe during a workout impact my health?
Our test subject wants to know how the environment interacts with their health state. GIS visualizations can give readily accessible methods by which to answer this query. Figure 76 shows how pollution parameters like CO, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 are monitored for understanding where respiratory and cardiovascular health is changing during outdoor exercise events. This visualization uses the location tracked activities synchronized to the public data sets generated personal exposome. For improved accuracy in providing this GIS estimation, we use heart rate data to understand breathing volume mapped with the local air quality sensors via constant GPS tracking Nag2018SurfaceActivities. Breathing rate is derived from heart rate streams generated during exercise Gastinger2010AExercise.. Tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled during a normal breath. It is computed from gender, weight, and height of an individual, which are sourced from the respective GNB nodes. Estimation of the total volume of air intake would be the product of breathing rate and tidal volume. The total volume of air multiplied by the air particulate content gives total exposure to the particulate of interest. In summary, this query uses both the environmental data and the biological streams in conjunction to provide the result.
Q3 Doctor: How is my patient’s heart health?
Our test subject visits the doctor and wants to understand if they are healthy enough to continue riding bicycles and how their health is changing. For clinical use, organ and tissue level analysis is most common. A cardiologist specialist wants to know how the left ventricular wall thickness is changing based on various life events as shown in Figure 77. The physician can use the GNB to compute the summary of the heart node global attributes. This state is shown in Figure 78. The subject can see there are periods where heart health is improving, and heart health is hampered. The top row of the figure shows if healthy genes are expressed in the heart, and the bottom row shows the unhealthy genes. The second row shows how much positive physiological hypertrophy is occurring. This is when the heart’s left ventricle expands in its interior volume, thus allowing for an increased stroke volume. The fourth row shows the pathological hypertrophy, where fibrosis and left ventricular wall thickness may be increasing, causing the left ventricle interior volume to decrease and leads to unhealthy states such as heart failure. The middle row shows the balance of healthy and pathological processes to see if the global attributes of the heart are improving or degrading. Based on these observations, the clinician can discuss best actions towards improving heart health.
Q4 Doctor: How is my patient’s left ventricular function?
Our test subject visits the doctor and wants to understand how their heart health is changing in regards to the left ventricular function. Again clinical use, organ and tissue level analysis is most common. The physician can use the GNB to see how the left ventricular volume is being updated on a daily basis. This state is shown in Figure 79. The subject can see there are periods where left ventricular health is improving or decreasing. A clinician can verify the stroke volume using ultrasound if they want a higher accuracy measurement.
Q5 Scientist: What are the molecular changes in this particular heart?
The test subject participates in a research study where scientists are trying to understand what molecular pathways are potentially activated and deactivated in an individual. The scientist would like to know how cycling events are possibly changing molecular pathways that are related to heart health for potential further research and therapeutic targets. The scientist can zoom into the GNB level of the heart node molecular signaling and gene expression, as shown earlier in Figure 68. To see how the molecular signaling molecules are changing in the heart, a graph-based visualization is produced showing the pathway in each month of the year in 2019 (Figure 80).
The various queries above demonstrate the usability of the health state estimation at different levels of abstraction. This outlines the framework by which any HSE system can be built. Concluding this section, we see how the health state updates can be used readily by the user, healthcare provider, and scientist to inquire how and why the health state is changing. Next, we discuss altering the HSE GNB structure to use incoming data to model the user better.
29 Personal Model Update
To update the GNB model for the individual, we take both a bottom-up and a top-down approach on the system. We start by using a top-down approach as a “Knowledge Update” on the model. Following this, we take two bottom-up approaches to better model the GNB. These data-driven approaches use two different methods of learning. One uses data incoming from two sources that are linked together to modify the edge. We call this parallel observation learning. The other uses many sources of incoming data to one node, to better estimate the values for that node. We call this approach, cross-modal learning.
29.1 Knowledge Update
Two forms of knowledge can inform the HSE system to update the GNB for the individual. The first form of knowledge is an update from the scientific literature on the structure and relationships between the entities. In this example, we update the relationship between an event category and biological nodes. Recently discovered knowledge in molecular biology shows how mitochondria increase in the muscles best from low-intensity exercise Yeager2020LISSSpeed. This finding is quite contrary to the commonly accepted research idea that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) was the most effective way to improve mitochondrial density in myocytes Hoshino2013High-intensityMuscle. In light of this discovery, we increase the edge weights between the low-intensity exercise interface events causing mitochondrial biogenesis and show the decreased edge weights for mitochondrial biogenesis from HIIT, as presented in Figure 81.
The second approach to a knowledge update is the genetics of an individual. Most genetics studies establish the correlation or causation of a gene to either an event, another biological node, or a utility. In the case of this subject, we gathered the full 23andMe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) of the individual and filtered out any genetics information that is pertinent to the GNB structure related to CRF. We find that the subjects have several genes associated with nutrition, exercise, and sleep that impact the graph structure, as shown in Table 11. We choose to focus the example on the exercise gene, Alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3). ACTN3 is a binding protein that plays a role in skeletal muscle fibers. This gene regulates the fast-twitch muscle fibers, essential for regulating the coordination of muscle-fiber contraction Massidda2019GeneticsFlexibility.
Given this genetic makeup of one C and one T variant, the strength between low-intensity exercise and high power exercise will have a balanced effect on the user’s GNB biological nodes. If this user were to have two C copies of the ACTN3 gene SNP, then the edge between power exercise and muscle node attribute values would change. In this case, for a given high power interface event detected would increase the resulting change in the muscle fiber. However, for a low-intensity exercise event, the consequent change in muscle composition would be less.
|Lactose Intolerance||LCT||rs4988235, 1A 1G|
|Saturated Fat & Weight||APOA2||rs5082|
|Exercise||Muscle Composition||ACTN3||rs1815739, 1C 1T|
|Sleep||Deep Sleep||ADA||rs73598374, 2C|
|Sleep Movement||BTBD9||rs3923809, 1G 1A|
This summarizes the knowledge-based approach to updating the graph. We continue next with data-driven model updates.
29.2 Parallel Observations
The first of two data-driven learning models we employ in this work is applicable when two nodes are observed with incoming data and are linked together. In the instance of our experiment, the two nodes that are linked are heart rate and power. Increases in heart rate result in increased power, and this is well understood both colloquially and in the biomedical literature. For each individual, this parameter is also always changing based on how their CRF state is changing. When plotting heart rate versus power, we notice the data ends up in two patterns. The first pattern is split with various linear clusters, as shown on image A in Figure 83. This pattern occurs due to a physiological phenomenon called heart rate drift, also known as aerobic decoupling. Aerobic decoupling is when the heart rate dramatically shifts for the same power output due to cardiac fatigue. Instances like image A show this effect happening. The green-colored portion of Figure 83 shows the beginning of the ride, and the red nodes indicate the values at the end of the ride. We can see that there is a shift in this twice reflecting initial fatigue followed by another step of extreme exhaustion. Because the relationship is changing so much within one ride, this instance is not a good source of parallel observation learning. The aerobic decoupling algorithm confirms this, with a decoupling of 40.3 percent. Image B, on the other hand, shows a single linear cluster that does not have any distinct separation. The aerobic decoupling algorithm confirms this, with a decoupling of 0.9 percent. Therefore the data from this ride can be used to give a quality relationship between the two variables. We use simple linear regression for this model, but more complex learning approaches can easily be applied if desired. To teach the system to look for high-quality relationships, we can compute the aerobic decoupling factor for each ride easily with the Algorithm 2. Using the latest value of this relationship, we can update the edges between heart rate and power in the GNB. The latest value for the last month of data (December 2019) on the test subject is shown in Figure 84.
|Input: Power and Heart Rate event streams (, ) Output: Aerobic Decoupling Percentage ()’ Begin 1: for each activity 2: if power and heart rate data present (, ) 3: Compute power-heart rate ratio for starting half of event, (). 4: Compute power-heart rate ratio for last half of event , (). 4: () = () - () 5: ()’ = ()*100 / () 6: end for 7: end for 8: Return ()’ End|
Cross-modal is defined as understanding of a situation from multiple types of inputs Lalanneab2004CrossmodalAction. In this case, cross-modal learning takes various inputs of the biological variables and events to estimate the value of a utility node. This set of experiments show that we can improve the quality of CRF estimation via this cross-modal approach. The estimations can improve by combining multiple cheap (in terms of monetary or energy costs) sensors. We use three features from the user’s event and data-streams that all have a direct impact on CRF: 1) Rate of vertical ascent in meters (VAM), 2) Training Impulse (TRIMP), and 3) Cadence-detected Active Time.
Per second power output values collected from the strain gauges serve as the ground truth in our experiments for bio-variable estimation. We used a rolling average of maximum 4-minute power output per day over 42 days to generate the ground truth for our experiments as the utility node to estimate. Forty-two days is a gold standard when understanding short-term changes in CRF Brooks1996Exercise2. Unsatisfied with this static parameter, we experimented to find out the optimum time to be considered for aggregating the metrics while estimating CRF values. We plotted the test error for the global models utilizing one metric in Figure 85
. We can see that while there is some variation in mean error, the 95% confidence intervals overlap for all time windows, and we cannot find an optimum time window to use in our experiments based solely on the data. Therefore we have used the clinically recommended period of 42 days to aggregate the past exercise events.
We trained two sets of linear regression models for a global model and a personal model for each feature. The personal model for each individual was trained on with a 70 percent training subset of data for the subject and tested on the remaining 30 percent data.
VAM models are trained to predict average power output (normalized by body weight) in 4-minute windows in an activity using the VAM in the time window, and the maximum estimated power output is then used to compute a continuous daily estimate for VO2max Cintia2013EnginePerformance. We trained models with varying slope thresholds to identify the impact of slope on estimate accuracy. As the slope increases, the effect of other resistance factors (such as wind, rolling resistance) decreases, and the model performs better (Table 13). We choose which model to use based on the maximum slope observed in the 4-minute windows, for example, if in a ride the maximum slope observed in a 4-minute interval is 5.3%, we would choose the model trained on intervals where the slope is greater than 5%. Since we are predicting body weight normalized power using VAM, none of the two metrics are greatly influenced by individual parameters. This is reflected in similar global and individual model performances for VAM (Figure 86).
TRIMP is a method to quantify training load, and considers the intensity of exercise calculated by heart rate during exercise Halson2014MonitoringAthletes. TRIMP captures the workload on an individual’s heart in the last 42 days. We trained a linear regression model to predict an individual’s VO2max value based on their total TRIMP score in the past 42 days. This metric proved to be more effective in a personal model than a global model as different individuals have different heart rate responses to the same exercise intensity, Fig 86
Active time is the actual amount of time the individual was actively putting in effort in the past 42 days. We obtained this metric using cadence values collected at per the second resolution. We also trained a linear regression model to predict an individual’s VO2max value based on their total activity time in the past 42 days. Similar to TRIMP, this metric performs better in a personalized model than in the global model as different individuals would have a different response to the same exercise volume (fig. 86).
Combination models outperform their constituent models in all our experiments, as shown by the error plots in Fig 86. The estimates from the previous models were combined using a weighted average, where weights for a model estimate are inverse of the model’s training error. The error in estimates for these models is reported in Figure 86 and discussed in this section. We can see from the plot that the best model in terms of average error and variance in error utilizes all available data streams.
In these experiments, we leverage cross-modal data to estimate a needed utility node. From our experimental results, we can see that increasing the number of data streams provide increased performance characteristics in achieving this goal.
The total health of an individual is much higher than any single node attribute, and that we need to understand better the total health state of a particular individual or organ system. We cover some actionable and semantically meaningful visualizations to see how to use the HSE.
30 Other Visualizations of HSE
How can we further assimilate HSE in a useful way for individuals and health providers? A first step is in the visual analysis of the HSE by users and health experts. Simple mobile applications such as the system mocked in Figure 87 can give a quick overview of the HSE, similar to checking the financial market state or weather state. Expanding this idea to a population provides insight in a detailed manner that can be useful to scientists, researchers, and health experts. We go over an experiment to show such a system in the next section.
30.1 Multi-Person View
Using the same HSE approach for the test subject, we applied this to multiple subjects to produce a health state overview for population health analysis. The dataset used in these experiments includes the same activity sensor data streams at one-second resolution collected on 24 male cycling athletes over an average of 5 years in the United States. Athletes also had strain gauges installed on their bicycles to measure true physiologic power output. The total dataset includes 31,776 activities and 70,178 hours of exercise data (252.6 million data intervals). Social media outlets of Instagram and LinkedIn were also used to gather an image dataset of 50 images per athlete and general demographic background information. From this, we assimilate various CRF biological and environmental nodes through the health state estimation using this data for each of the 24 subjects, as shown in Figure 88. We find that even though most of these subjects are all cycling athletes, they have a wide range in these nodes. Modern-day primary care doctors would not be able to see this when a patient visits. Looking at this data panel across the subject pool, we discover some interesting trends in Figure 88. As expected, as the age increases the overall heart health state decreases, since age is a large factor of cardiac health (age range in the panel is 18-57). As age increases, we also see a reduction in crime and noise pollution, suggesting that older individuals can afford to live in safer and quieter neighborhoods. We also see circadian rhythm disruption maximally in the middle ages (20-29), suggested a more erratic lifestyle for those in their twenties. Circulation and metabolism scores also trend (including VO2max / CRF) lower as age increases. Although this is a small sample size to make any strong conclusions, we can begin to see the usefulness of using this cross-modal analysis for clinical applications. This work was published at Association for Computing Machinery’s (ACM) Multimedia 2018 in the Brave New Idea track Nag2018Cross-modalEstimation.
Concluding this chapter, we see how the framework in Chapter 4 can be implemented at a detailed level for estimating the health state of an individual, and how this can scale over time and across more individuals. This working framework is shown in Figure 89. The next chapter explores ideas within the original inspiration of using HSE for navigation and control. This exploration is intended to extend HSE beyond this dissertation.
31 General Health State Space
The first step of navigation is establishing the general health state space, as described in Chapter 4. The “flight envelope” of an aircraft is the inspiration for the state space concept. The envelope encompasses measurements (load factor, atmospheric density, altitude, etc.), which determines the space in which it is safe for the plane to fly in, as shown in Figure 91. Similarly, the state space defines all possibilities and capabilities to understand the scope in which the navigation will occur. This state space includes all possible health states a human can exist in. For example, if the state space is the cardiovascular state, all possible measurements for the cardiovascular state will be considered, including all components of fitness (with specific measurements such as VO2max), cardiovascular disease, and more.
32 Personal Health State Space
When we apply the state space to an individual, we create a personal health state space, which includes all the possibilities for an individual given their situation. This is by definition a subset of the general health state space. Each person has a unique and finite possibility of biological states. Classic examples such as height, eye color, or fingerprints have a small set of states after reaching adulthood. However, many aspects of biology have an wide range of possible states, which change based on daily life. Consider how exercise changes the mitochondrial content of cells, how nutrition alters our metabolic processes, how medications modulate our blood pressure, and how ultraviolet light damages DNA. The changes in these states are what determines the movement in the state space. Mapping the personal health state space (PHSS) in totality is a complex, multidimensional challenge. We can apply this concept to what we observe in flight envelopes, in which specific models of planes have unique state spaces. Each type of plane will have its possibilities by which it can fly. Narrowing the state space to the individual’s possibilities give a more specified scope best set up for personalized navigation.
33 State Transition Network
Within the personal health state space, there are connections made between each of the individual state possibilities. The connections themselves are the state transition network. Each edge within the network represents transitions that take the person from one node to another. With the cardiovascular state, for example, we determine which inputs will transition the heart state. The state transition takes into consideration all the inputs that will lead to the next state, therefore making connections or relationships between states. If one were to exercise, experience stress, or have a high salt meal, they are transitioning between these states in their PHSS. To understand the PHSS in more detail, we must identify the knowledge layers and regions of interest within the space relevant to the topic of interest. Connections within a PHSS between two nodes will be unique based on the individual. For example, for person A and B to grow one pound of muscle, the inputs needed for A will be different than person B. Therefore the state transition network is also a unique part of the PHSS.
34 Knowledge Layers and Regions of Interest
Layers on top of the PHSS contains all relevant health domain knowledge, similar to physical maps that use latitude, longitude, and altitude to describe the globe independently of any knowledge layers. Information layers such as roads, oceans, country borders, and satellite imagery allow for navigation within the space, depending on the context (driving requires roads and traffic layers, while flight requires air class, way-points, and airport layers). Knowledge layers represent the real world, in which humans can make sense of their state concerning their interests. A semantic translation to the relevant PHSS will depend on the user’s region of interest. For example, mapping the coordinates of a “cyclist” in the PHSS requires matching relevant coordinates within the desired region of interest in the state space. This region of interest is a particular area within the state space relative to where the individual currently is in their health status. A defined distance allows the individual can see how close or far they are from being in this region and the various nodes or states that would cause one to get there. Similarly, one can determine their risk for heart disease based on their current state’s distance from an undesirable region. Mapping current location distance from regions of poor health brings about a new approach to quantify one’s relationship to disease risk.
35 Current State Estimation
It is important to note that there is constant flux within an individual’s PHSS based on one’s location in the state space. For success, navigation must be able to assign an accurate location within the PHSS, just as GPS provides physical world navigation. Understanding this location is the HSE (all previous chapters). The same HSE tool may be useful for many applications. For example, monitoring a cardiovascular health state is useful to both endurance athletes and heart disease patients. Estimation techniques have been of great interest in designing many applications, but health applications will require increasingly deep biological knowledge layers to define and estimate health states. This estimation could indicate its proximity to biological dysfunction or its capacity for the desired goal.
36 Goal Decomposition
For navigation to occur, an individual’s requires specifying a goal state. Goal states can be specified as ROI or a specific point. If an individual has a region of interest for becoming a cyclist, they can more specifically choose a pointed goal such as competing in a 100-mile road cycling race. Goal decomposition is needed to translate the goal state into short-term goals. This process occurs through breaking down the goal to identify the unique utilities relevant for the specified goal.
First, in this process, the system will need to translate the semantic goal to the PHSS. Because the PHSS is large, we must break down a macro health goal into several intermediate states and subgoals that the system can focus on reasonably. There may be a set of short-term goals at any given moment, each with its own set of intermediate states and subgoals. At the lowest atomic level for an application, PHN lists fulfillment tasks in priority order so that users can execute them in the real world to attain a subgoal or the next intermediate state.
To become a road cyclist, for example, there will need to be a process broken down into the key utilities (i.e., develop muscle strength, improve cardiovascular health, ensure body alignments). Each of these intermediate steps will have various subgoals required for the optimization process. If the individual’s utility is to develop bone strength, they will need adequate nutrition and weight training. Each subgoal translates to a smaller state space. In the case of nutrition, models will list macro (carbohydrates, protein, fat) and micro (vitamins, minerals) nutrients. These components may then be the chosen atomic-level intermediate states for applying nutrition.
Goals and corresponding subgoals occur at various timescales. Take for example the cyclist whose race is in six months. The cyclist must maintain daily subgoals such as establish cardiovascular endurance (i.e., a two-hour bike ride, four days a week). We can then break it down into minute by minute subgoals to maintain a particular power output for interval training, to build a higher power to weight ratio. When looking at the biological level, the subgoals may be positive gene expression for mitochondrial biogenesis and improved metabolism, which has a second by the second timescale.
36.2 Recurring Goals versus Achievement Goals
There are two types of goals. One is a recurring goal that is an ongoing goal, such as a habit or way of living. For example, brushing teeth would be considered a recurring goal that an individual maintains over time. This requires constant navigation till the recurring goal is terminated by the user. There are also achievement-based goals, which are defined situations that once achieved terminate the navigation. Once the user meets the achievement (such as winning a race), they must then set a new goal.
36.3 Synergistic Goals versus Competing Goals
We must note that there may be multiple goals that are either working in synergy or competing with one another. For example, if an individual has the goal for high performance in a road race and also would like to be an enduro mountain bike racer, there may be overlap in synergistic goals, such as the cardiovascular training required to perform in both types of events. However, as enduro mountain bike racing relies on high skill in demanding terrain and upper body strength (therefore increased weight), it will conflicting with the training for high endurance activities, such as the 100-mile road race which require being at a lighter weight.
36.4 Identifying User Motivations for Goals
Identifying user motivations is critical for goal setting and, ultimately, the effectiveness of any lifestyle change. Engagement is dependent on providing recommendations that primarily fuel intrinsic motivation while using extrinsic motivation for further support. This understanding builds the foundation of sustainable behavioral adaptation for optimal personalized health benefits. Intrinsic motivation arises from internal enjoyment or satisfaction in a particular task, while extrinsic motivation refers to motivating factors from the outside world, such as rewards or punishment. While both can lead to lifestyle activities that benefit health, intrinsic motivation drives long term user engagement.
We can use multi-modal data to learn if a user is executing an action from intrinsic motivation or external factors. For instance, if a user repeats an activity without prompting and without external influence, this gives us an increased weighting that the motivation is intrinsic. If we detect themes and concepts in their social media consumption, and one takes part in an activity when a reward prompts them, we can consider this as more weighting towards the extrinsic motivation Nag2018IntrinsicSystems.
The guidance process towards the defined goal includes creating a route and recommending the next steps along the way. Computers play a role in providing both short-term guidance and longer-term guidance; however, to predict the future, provide guidance, and understand the preferences and particularities of an individual, personal models are needed. These models, which establish the premise that each individual is a unique system, are needed to best estimate the user’s health state and how various inputs uniquely move them in their PHSS. Models are then accessed to provide precise guidance towards a goal state. The personal model can build knowledge and predict many aspects of an individual’s life, such as how a person reacts to different stimuli under specific conditions or physiological change from an intervention. To model a person, a combination of long- and short-term information must interact. Long-term models of an individual can come from the genome or the history of event patterns and behavior. Biological or high-resolution continuous sensors can capture short-term models. These models are not static; they continuously change with an individual’s age, life events, and other life parameters, which makes model-building a dynamic and causal understanding process.
After measuring, estimating, modeling the individual, and receiving a goal the user needs to receive guidance on the next step needed to reach that goal. For an individual to make decisions about events leading up to their goal state, the system routes through intermediate steps through the PHSS. At each moment in time instructions are given for the next appropriate actions.
Having a map, location, and goal (or destination) now sets the stage for routing. As we cannot go back to previous time points, we must move forward through intermediate states over time towards a desired goal state. Making a route on a map requires not only knowing the start and endpoints but also all the layers of roads and traffic. In the case of PHN, each set of intermediate states and sub-goals will have its layer of information, which is relevant for mapping, along with costs and constraints to transition among intermediate states. Interactions in PHN will be extremely complex due to its large dimensionality. We must handle competing user goals, through methods such as prioritization or weighting. Means–ends analysis or other problem-solving techniques, along with appropriate routing algorithms, will reveal the best intermediate states for the user to reach the goal. There may be multiple routes to get to the desired goal. However, route selection may be made by various optimization criteria that include user preferences, efficiency, speed, and resources.
For the example case of food routing for pregnancy. It is necessary to map available food options, nutrition, and locations, along with how each choice can fulfill the tasks demanded over a period of time of nine months. Consider models for breakfast, lunch, snack, and dinner in the daily sub-goal of a nutritional state. There must be coordination of total components to reach the sub-goal appropriately. For example, if breakfast does not provide enough iron, then it must be compensated for in other meals. Researchers must further consider the logistics of adding a dish into the equation. Hence, solving routing for various PHN components remains an open opportunity.
37.2 Actions and Cybernetic Control
Actions of the person help lead them to a specified goal. Cybernetic control pairs the individual user and digital assistance to enact these real-world changes to transition the health state. Control mechanisms steer individuals towards the state transition on various timescales. Therefore, recommendation serves as a tool for the cybernetic control in a particular moment in time. Recommendation may help plan for a single moment in time, but it does not consider routing through the state space. This is a key difference between navigation and recommendation.
When applied to health, combining sub-population and individual data dynamically into a system gives real-time personalized evidence-based actions unique for each individual through sensors and specific feedback guidance loops. In the case of the cyclist, the control mechanism for ensuring they are on target for getting to their next state is determined by the power out for each training interval from data collected from the power meter. If their power is too high or too low, the recommendation may be to adjust for the optimal power output in the live moment of training. Based on their biology and the effort during the training ride, they can have actionable next steps on what food they should eat next for optimal recovery Nag2017CyberneticHealth.
Computing optimal control mechanisms, however, are not enough. For meaningful impact, we must implement the cybernetic control principles in the real world which includes noise and disturbances. For the system to be effective in the physical work, we must consider the spectrum of actuation ranging from fully-automated systems to human-fulfilled actions.
Many machines automate tasks such as laundry or aircraft control, which are instances of completely automated control mechanisms that can make an action in the real world control a task. For a type 1 diabetic patient, continuous glucose monitoring through the artificial pancreas, paired with insulin pumps, can control blood sugar far better than humans can and acts in a minute by minute timescale. Heart pacemakers have electrodes that detect the heart’s electrical activity and send data to generate electrical pulses to the heart to control and monitor the heartbeat at a second by the second timescale. In these closed-loop systems, the executed actions are entirely automated, and no human intervention or uncertainty is involved, so these cases can be considered deterministic actuators in PHN.
Automation can assist humans in taking action. For example, building a Smart Home System helps modulate an individual’s environment for circadian control, which ultimately assists in sleeping. Automated biological circadian rhythm control can be via connected lights, digital screen color variation, thermostats that mimic natural temperature fluctuations, and motorized curtains with smart white noise. While this may assist in circadian control and developing habits for sleep, the human needs to take action to ensure a consistent sleep schedule.
Humans are not always good at understanding complex instructions or remembering them at the right time and in the right situations. They also are easily influenced and distracted, which makes them non-deterministic actuators. Even when the user fully intends to reach a health goal, adhering to healthy routines can be difficult. The primary challenging task is to understand how to influence people at the right time and with the best medium to produce the desired action. For each individual, actions must be persuasive in the given context, practically feasible, and encourage participation. Richard Thaler won the 2017 Nobel Prize for understanding the psychological underpinnings and control of the decision-making process in humans Thaler2016BehavioralFuture. Specifically, the following three high-impact contributions interweave directly with health navigation.
Limited rationality: Simplified decision-making focuses on the narrow impact of each decision rather than on its overall effect. Computing these complex effects can offload these tasks from the user.
Lack of self-control: A planner–doer model describes the relationship between long-term planning and short-term actions. Short-term temptations to make healthier lifestyle choices often fail. By quantifying the health cost or benefit in any situation, users can make more controlled and informed decisions.
Nudging and Probabilistic Nature of Inputs: By using subtle cues, users are pushed to make a confident decision without force, thus avoiding the pitfalls of self-control and limited rationality. Systems that employ these tactics can unobtrusively steer choices, leading to the goal state.
As PHN is able to model better the behavior of an individual, we can increase the probability of executing a given action using the considerations listed. The system explains why it suggests the nudge or action to users, and it offers alternate options to embolden the feeling of choice. Another avenue for human actuation will be to reduce the decision burden by eliminating the tediousness involved in being healthy. Even professional athletes do not measure every gram or determine every ingredient in their food due to the information and calculation burden. Translated into simple, step-by-step, context-aware guidance, users can better fulfill PHN actuation steps. PHN can start to apply control to the health state, either with fulfillment by a machine or with user participation, to move the health state toward the goal and close the loop.
Many of these actions are driven by daily decisions. Some of these decisions stem from hedonistic tendencies programmed in our biology from prehistoric times. Reward mechanisms were biologically encoded based on survival in a low resource environment with high uncertainty of the future. In the domain of food, these resources included factors such as caloric energy, water, and salt. Thus, humans have been optimized through evolution to accumulate these scarce resources in their body. Unfortunately the current era of civilization makes these types of problems largely irrelevant and much of our programmed biology is actually maladaptive in this context. In order to move our health towards a positive direction, we need better actionable insight about our health than just our naturally encoded tendencies.
When a user is a final actuator in the system, there must be a probabilistic approach to knowing if a user will take a specific planned step. One way to increase the chance is to have high-quality recommendation systems.
Recommendation systems play a role as a subset of cybernetic control. While the guidance is a full path to a goal, the recommendation systems increase the probability that a step in the process will take place for a particular state transition. A recommender system is also a filtering system that seeks to predict the rating or preference a user would give to an item. For example, services like Spotify have playlists generated based on user preferences. In the context of health, we use computed guidance and recommendation systems to guide an individual in lifestyle, nutrition, and other contextual components. Recommender systems have three components: 1) the user, 2) items to recommend, and 3) the context at a specific time and point that changes the relationship between the user and the items.
The user health state is primarily a product of our everyday lifestyle actions, yet we have minimal access to recommendations on making everyday choices. Recommendations are the key to current content consumption and decisions. Cybernetic navigation principles that integrate health media sources can power dynamic recommendations to improve health decisions dramatically. Cybernetic components give real-time feedback on health status, while the navigational approach plots the health trajectory. These two principles coalesce data to enable personalized, predictive, and precise health knowledge that can contextually disseminate the right actions to keep individuals on their path to wellness Nag2017HealthObservations.
Unique individual preferences are critical for determining the user profile, as preferences determine whether or not a user will proceed with the recommendation. Understanding a user’s model allows us to build a more precise and personalized recommendation system. We have investigated the relationship between cuisines and their inherent taste by collecting data on an individual’s food photos. We used image metadata and computer vision tools to extract distinct insights from each user to build their food profile (unpublished).
A combination of preferences for physical activity and conditions can also be applied in a recommender system to give an individual the most optimal plan for their exercise. For example, we have used a method for using GPS data from a human-powered cyclist to classify if the user is on a paved road or unpaved trail. Because road cyclists may prefer smooth roads, versus mountain bike riders who prefer dirt roads, we can begin to understand user preferences for bicycle travel paths. We can draw other relevant insights from the data we collect through Strava. We can collect social media platforms to determine the weather preference of the user, the kind of roads they prefer to cycle on, the time during which they regularly perform the activity, and much more. These can be combined in order to recommend suitable activities to improve the health state Nag2018SurfaceActivities.
Just as motivation is critical for goal setting, it is also vital for one’s willingness to follow through with a recommendation. Strong recommendations need to be set based on the intrinsic preferences of the user. Combining the right triggers with context, we can maximize the effectiveness of sustainable positive health recommendations. Over time, the recommender system should adapt to the user and identify triggers that are needed to support their motivations. For example, exercising every day should become habitual rather than a constant suggestion from the recommendation engine. In addition to one’s health, user enjoyment is also a critical component of determining the user profile. Enjoyment leads to a higher quality of living, so it is critical to incorporate the best preferences.
We must capture in detail the items or characterization of specific objects that change the health state. By knowing the user profile, we can then match a user model with items.
For food recommendations, we propose a mechanism to determine the taste profile of items. We incorporate into a recommendation engine an empirical method to determine the flavor of food. Such a system has advantages of suggesting food items that the user is more likely to enjoy based upon matching with their flavor profile through the use of the taste biological domain knowledge. This preliminary intends to spark more robust mechanisms by which flavor of food can apply to recommendation systems Nag2019FlavourRecommendation.
Along with the taste profile, we propose that food items should also have a health profile associated. Recommending items based on unique preferences comes challenges. For example, the Long Tail Problem highlights items that are not popular but highly relevant to the user, shown in Figure 98 Park2008TheIt. However, by understanding the health status of the user, we can match health-relevant items that a user would not usually browse through. This matching process allows the user to discover healthy items that are relevant but would have been difficult to find through popularity based rating systems. Thus, a recommender system should provide relevantly matched items to reduce browsing burden. The goal of this system is to capture the healthy items in the long tail and match them to the personal needs of a user based on, for example, sodium needs. Nag2018EndogenousHealth; Nag2017PocketLocation; Nag2017LiveEngine.
People want to know what foods they can consume at a specific place, alongside the taste, ingredients, allergens, nutrients, and visual and other sensory characteristics. Combining both taste profiles and health profiles for food items give us a basic food atlas WorldFoodAtlas.org2020WorldExperience. This food atlas is a location-based database that has a live data base of nutritional items of food along with all parameters about each physical entity within inventory. The information regarding each food type can be globally available and creates standardization for food computing purposes. This idea has just recently been launched to the public as an open source project. “The World Food Atlas project is an open source effort to prepare a live atlas of specific food at a specific geographic location. World Food Atlas (WFA) aspires to provide information relevant to all dishes and food items for health and enjoyment that foods offers us, wherever you are in the world. We want to make it widely available so it can be converted to actionable information for a person in specific context” WorldFoodAtlas.org2020WorldExperience.
The next step is understanding the context (location and resources) for a given individual situation, which then determines the relationship between the user profile and items. We can continue to improve recommender systems with in-depth context provided. The utility function is the primary ranking method to predict what a given person would explicitly prefer. There are two layers of user and context modeling, coupled with traditional recommender system approaches. One is an endogenous context, which integrates data to estimate the physiologic or innate needs of the user (health state) or preferences, and second is the exogenous context, which incorporates factors outside of the person’s body (i.e., points of interest, geospatial resources, social context) Nag2018EndogenousHealth.
Through multi-modal sensor data integration applied to domain-specific utility functions, filters, and re-ranking weights, we can use context in recommendations. We showcase this concept through a nutrition guidance system focused on controlling sodium intake at a personalized level, dramatically improving upon the fixed recommendations. For a particular user, identifying contexts through continuous sensing is the best execution strategy. For one’s nutrition, the system will need to decide the best meal choice to move the user’s health state closer to his or her goal state based on situational constraints. This decision will require knowledge of all available meals, as well as their locations, hours, nutrition facts, and ingredients along with the personal sensor data modeling the physiologic needs.
A challenge that arises is the user’s inability to delineate and demand healthy food in a quantitative manner. We have developed a technological solution that is continuously able to interpret nutrition information, ingest nutritional facts about products to efficiently calculate which items are healthiest, and deliver these results to users based on their location context. Our system gives the user a fast way to connect with healthy food in their vicinity, reducing the barriers to a healthy diet. Addressing the correct granularity of recommendations, such as meals, is essential for simple decision making. We have made a decision support system using multi-modal data relying on timely, contextually aware, personalized data to find local restaurant dishes to satisfy a user’s needs. Algorithms in this system take nutritional facts regarding products, efficiently calculate which items are healthiest, then re-rank and filter results to users based on their personalized health data streams and environmental context. The primary goal of lowering barriers to a healthy personalized choice drives our recommendation engine Nag2017LiveEngine.
There may be guidance mechanisms beyond the scope of computing. Human experts may be utilized for recommending change to an individual’s health state in person or through various forms of telecommunication. These forms of guidance can be synchronous in time (real-time), or they can be asynchronous through various forms of communication and multi-media.
Through multi-modal sensor data integration applied to domain-specific utility functions, filters, and re-ranking weights, we can use context in recommendations. We showcase this concept through a nutrition guidance system focused on controlling sodium intake at a personalized level, dramatically improving upon the fixed recommendations. For a particular user, identifying contexts through continuous sensing is the best execution strategy. For one’s nutrition, the system will need to decide the best meal choice to move the user’s health state closer to his or her goal state based on situational constraints. This decision will require knowledge of all available meals, as well as their locations, hours, nutrition facts, and ingredients along with the personal sensor data modeling the physiologic needs.
The end purpose of the PHSS is to ensure that the individual arrives closer to their end goal destination, which may mean high-quality intermediate events that determine one’s experience in the navigation process. The quality of the experience provided is, therefore, one of the requirements of the system. In order to have a long-term engagement success with the navigation system, we must understand the individual’s motivations, preferences, context, and other factors that may make the individual more engaged with the system.
The personal navigation system to health allows for concrete actions to be taken for the future performance of one’s health. Future systems can leverage modern computing power with rich multi-modal data to understand movements on the health state space continuously and to contextually guide users toward wellness. The nexus of biomedical knowledge, sensor technology, computing power, mobile networks, and artificial intelligence will fuel significant growth in PHN systems.
38 Technical Challenges
Improvements in various technical areas are necessary to bring further fruition of this framework to individuals. Many of the challenges need to be understood in depth.
38.1 Building Rich Knowledge Atlases
The work presented here focuses only on one domain of cardiovascular and athletic performance. Experts must also address areas beyond cardiovascular health. To establish the best cold-start graph representation of an individual, we need accessible domain knowledge. This accessibility needs to cooperate with both human and computational interfaces. There have been substantial efforts in both of these interfaces in general domains as well as health-specific fields. Examples of knowledge bodies that are widely used today include Wikipedia, PubMed, and Google Scholar Wikipedia2020Wikipedia; NCBI2020HomeNCBI; Google2020GoogleScholar. For physicians and healthcare providers, the most commonly used atlas of knowledge is UptoDate UpToDate2016Evidence-BasedUpToDate. Most of these knowledge atlases store information in static natural language, which is very useful to interface with humans. The computational interface with these knowledge sets will require robust Natural Language Processing techniques to produce a virtual representation of knowledge. Efforts have been made in specific domains to encode the knowledge in a more computable format. MDCalc is a website that allows domain experts to define formulas by which other users or applications can run domain knowledge-based calculations for precise biological estimations of physiology, risk, or medication dosing MDCalc2020MDCalcGuidelines. One step further for computational representation is the entire field of knowledge graphs. Open source platforms such as Cytoscape and HetNets have shown promise in taking the current domain knowledge and producing a connected system that can incorporate within further applications Shannon2003Cytoscape:Networks. The ultimate ideology behind the knowledge atlases would be a dynamic reference database that applications can use to access the latest scientific understanding to build systems of navigation, estimation, and other services. These atlases would require the coordinated representation of both highly complex data and human knowledge structure and taxonomy.
Hardware improvements for health state estimation largely depend upon sensors that can unobtrusively gather data about events, biological metrics, and utility measures. Event sensors that can capture more attributes in detail can give insight on how the event is impacting the health state, and exactly what aspects of the event are relevant. Improved biological sensors are needed to know what the observed values of biological health state components are to better estimate an all encompassing health state. State estimation may also become computationally demanding depending on the case. There remains a need to use computing hardware to include local, edge, and cloud based approaches for high performance health estimation. In various contexts, there will be a need for both online and offline methods to digest and compute the information. The online approaches need to synchronize at appropriate times to update models in the offline approaches.
On the mathematical side, computing through modern modeling techniques can increase the computing efficiency and capability to handle higher loads of computational complexity with more efficiency. Black box artificial intelligence techniques to improve data driven relationships need to transition into explainable systems. If any health estimation is done on a battery powered device, energy management also becomes a key issue for constant updates of the health state. Given the high cost of accuracy and complexity, there needs to be better optimization of computing resources.
38.4 Accuracy and Precision
Precision in estimation will be best suited for measuring relative change in an individual, as it refers to the closeness of measurements to one another. Accuracy refers to the closeness in measurements of to a specific value, giving a definite health measurement. Estimation in its initial iteration may not be accurate, but it is assumed to improve over time with refining of equations, algorithms, feature extraction methods, learning methods, as well as with improvements in hardware technology. We use basic methods in this paper as a starting point for further advancement with modern learning and predictive techniques. Because of the relative large range in accuracy, wearable devices and similar low cost sensors are promoted for use as a screening tool to identify if a user is at risk or has a change in their health stateIEEEComputerSociety2019ComputerSociety. Clinical gold standard testing, a more expensive alternative, may be used to confirm the true state of the user if the state estimation passes a certain screening threshold. More work will need to be done to ensure the robustness of the estimations are good enough for key decision-making, such as ensuring validated clinical and biomedical research.
38.5 N=1 Statistics
Baseline comparisons are also difficult when studying individual subjects, and will require statistical methods for n of 1 studies McQuay1994DextromethorphanDesign; Chapple2011FindingTrials. Even while referencing established clinical science research we still have no way to validate ground truth about an individual until decades into the future when a person becomes verified in their disease or die. Therefore, comparisons are not the best way to experimentally validate the estimation model. Performance comparisons for this type of experiment will need to be validated through large scale data collection and monitoring in prospective studies as mentioned in related works. Parallel models may compete for the best representation of the individual through an adversarial and recurrent network that is temporally dynamic. Ultimately, high quality validation techniques using only a single individual need to be advanced in order to definitively improve and verify the state estimation quality.
38.6 Event Mining
Efficiently extracting knowledge from events and log data for an individual remains a challenge. Tracking of individual data may be limited, and barriers to efficient extraction of useful information exist. We see problems with the accessibility of data, more adequate sensors developed for determining events, and event descriptions. There are also issues with semantic variability in the real-world, including multilevel event semantics, implicit semantics facets, and the influence of context Xie2008EventStreams. The field of behavioral modeling can benefit greatly by having more data-driven personal models that can be fed into a navigation system to provide more engaging routing for the individual. Event mining can also help understand causal chain of events and discover edges in the graph that are unknown.
39 Real-World Adoption
For real-world adoption of this work into tangible services for society and individuals, we must consider various usability, economics, legal, ethical, and protection issues. For health state estimation to occur, users must have some reason to engage in collecting and sharing data about themselves. This estimation must be made useful through services back to the individual that is part of the broader health economy. All the sharing of information must also occur safely. Privacy refers to the rights to control personal information by the individual and how authorized agents use it. Security, on the other hand, refers to how personal information will be protected and defended against unauthorized and malicious access. Since health data inherently contains sensitive information about an individual, we must address these at both individual and societal levels.
One of the greatest struggles in the health field is individual engagement with their health. In the current healthcare model, individuals predominantly interact with their health when there is a problem or urgent need (a reactive approach). Individuals must see value in state estimation and proactively engage in collecting their health data. We see a few challenges:
1) Health state estimation relies heavily on computing mechanisms and may provide complexities for humans to understand and use effectively. Humans need to be technologically savvy in interacting with sensors that are collecting their health information. Sensors must provide ease of use, and individuals must trust that the sensors are not harming them in any capacity.
2) It is not very easy to visualize the health state as it is so robust that a person may not be able to comprehend all the various components and relationships. There will be challenges with simplifying information to the semantic understanding of the individual.
3) Currently, individuals interact with their health through service providers (i.e., doctors, health professionals, insurance companies). Because of health’s interconnectedness with external systems, service providers must be involved in the health estimation in order to help the individual in both understandings and taking steps towards better health.
4) Individuals may be disinclined to engaging with their health. It is necessary to consider behavioral psychology to see where there are gaps in engaging with health and having motivation for improving future health. There is the problem of temporal discounting, in which “value of a reward decreases as the time delay until its receipt increases” Goldstein2011EncyclopediaDevelopment. Humans are less inclined to make changes in the present day if the outcomes are far in the future.
39.2 User Autonomy, Authority, and Ownership
As more personal health data is acquired to estimate the health state, there will arise issues with data ownership and utilization by external sources, introducing legal and ethical barriers and ambiguity in who will ultimately make use of the data. The privacy and security issues regarding sensitive health data can be at an individual level, organizational level, or national level for civilian protection. Emerging threats and vulnerabilities will continue to grow as data becomes expansive, and it will be a challenge to balance innovation in health estimation with the regulation of health data.
A challenge with user health data is ownership of the information and the ability to release this data to external agents such as healthcare service providers. As the information is sensitive and robust, there must be controls and policies in place to ensure ownership of data by the individual and appropriately used. There are regulations in place today that help with data privacy issues such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) passed by Congress in 1996. This law created rules to address disclosure of “protected health information” by organizations and created privacy rights standards for individuals to control the use of their health information HHS2013SummaryHHS.gov. Similarly, The European Union has established the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018 to strengthen individual privacy rights by clarifying rules for companies and public bodies in the digital market EuropeanCommission2016DataCommission.
We must carefully address information sharing as there can be external threats and harm to the individual with improper data management.
Security is a significant concern for personal health data as from breaches by external threats, hackers and ransomware are highly prevalent. Mishandling of information can stem from insider information misuse and lack of security for mobile devices. Healthcare providers may fail to evaluate risk when working with outside vendors. There becomes an issue with individuals sharing information voluntarily on the web or via apps, in which case attackers can take disparate information pieces from many sources, including social networks, public records, and search engines Li2011NewPrivacy.
Some methods for addressing security are being taken, such as blockchains used for storing and sharing information that is secure because of its transparency. Blockchain systems are more commonly used in healthcare to protect information but are susceptible to attacks Huang2019BlockchainModel. Encryption methods take the data and convert it to encoded text. Data is unreadable unless an individual has the necessary key or code to decrypt it.
With the sensitivity of the information at hand, we must ensure further advancements to ensure all individual data is secure for the protection of the individual.
39.5 Health Economics
Determining the widespread adoption of the health state estimation relies on external stakeholders and the nature of health economics. Healthcare today heavily relies on an infrastructure set by hospital systems, insurance agencies, and other health service providers. These agents are primarily focused on consumer demand, cost, and profitability, while individual health improvement may not be at the forefront. The incorporation of the health state estimation concept will depend on stakeholder alignment and building a model to incentive both providers and individuals. As the health economy continues to expand, there will inevitably arise challenges managing multiple stakeholders.
39.6 Standards and Interoperability
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play notable roles in the improvement of patient care via the exchange of information among healthcare providers. For complex systems to work together in an open way, the private and public sectors to collaborate and build frameworks for building health tools and services, technical specifications, and content. It becomes a challenge to unite multiple stakeholders. The Standards and Interoperability Framework within the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology has made progress to take input from various stakeholders and create health IT specifications for us throughout the U.S. HHS2020StandardsFunctions. The Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) is an international standard for exchanging healthcare information electronically, advancing interoperability in the healthcare community NHS2019FastDigital. FHIR allows for the sharing of information in a standard way regardless of ways local electronic health records represent or store data, allowing for more access to real-time data. However, there remain challenges with the seamless exchange of patient information across different healthcare systems.
39.7 Research Community
Collaboration between many different fields of medicine, bioscience, social science, computer science, statistics, and engineering must come together to have an inter-disciplinary approach towards these challenges. HealthMedia can be viewed as one response from the multimedia community to rise to this challenge. There is an increasing number of research work that shows how core multimedia research is becoming an essential enabler for solutions with applications and relevance for the societal health questions. Within this workshop, we continue to explore the relevance, contribution, and future directions of multimedia to health care and personal health. This workshop brings together researchers from diverse topics such as multimedia, tracking, life-logging, accessibility, HCI, but also health, medicine, and psychology to address challenges and opportunities of multimedia in and for health. To forward this mission through my contributions to the research community, I have led several projects, including leading a workshop committee chair for HealthMedia at the ACM Multimedia 2019 Conference in Nice, France Boll2019HealthMedia19, founding the Institute for Future Health at the University of California, Irvine, and leading a session during an international workshop for Food Computing alongside Professor Ramesh Jain.
40 Final Words
Health State estimation is just one piece of the total health continuum concept. Ultimately, there must be advancements to ensure the development of reliable, practical, and useful systems to guide people towards better health through a navigational paradigm. Additionally, privacy and security methods must evolve concurrently for such systems to function in the real world. This research invites others to participate in building the foundations of health state estimation and navigational approaches to health. This starting point sets the aim by which people can enjoy peak health by utilizing the combined advancements in computer science, medical research, and technology at large. We hope this builds research momentum towards providing a high-quality, healthy life for every person.
|ABMS||American Board of Medical Specialties|
|ACM||Association for Computing Machinery|
|AALM||All Ages Lead Model|
|ABP||Athlete Biological Passport|
|ACC||American College of Cardiology|
|AHA||American Heart Association|
|API||Application Programming Interface|
|ASCVD||Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease|
|ATP||Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine Foundation|
|BAC||Blood Alcohol Content|
|CDC||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
|CEDH||Center for Educational Development Health|
|cMRI||Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging|
|CTL||Chronic Training Load|
|DALY||Disability Adjusted Life Year|
|DEXA||Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry|
|EMA||Ecological Momentary Assessment|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|FHIR||Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources|
|fMRI||Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging|
|GDPR||General Data Protection Regulation|
|GIS||Geographical Information Systems|
|GNB||Graph Network Block|
|GOVVS||Gravity Ordered Velocity Stress Score|
|GPS||Global Positioning System|
|GSR||Galvanic Skin Resistance|
|HIPAA||Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Regulation|
|HIIT||High-Intensity Interval Training|
|HPA||High Power Activity|
|HRV||Heart Rate Variability|
|HSE||Health State Estimation|
|ICD||International Classification of Disease|
|ICTs||Information and Communication Technologies|
|ICU||Intensive Care Unit|
|IoT||Internet of Things|
|MRI||Magnetic Resonance Imaging|
|NIH||National Institute of Health|
|NLP||Natural Language Processing|
|NSAID||Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs|
|PHSS||Personal Health State Space|
|QoL||Quality of Life|
|ROI||Region of Interest|
|SCD||Sudden Cardiac Death|
|SDK||Software Development Skit|
|SNP||Single Nucleotide Polymorphism|
|TCA Cycle||Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle|
|VAM||Vertical Ascent in Meters|
|VO2max||Maximum Volume of Oxygen|
|WHO||World Health Organization|
|YLL||Years of Life Lost|
See next page for Table.
|Garmin||GPS multi-sport smartwatch||https://www.garmin.com/en-US/|
|Garmin||Heart rate monitor with chest strap||https://www.garmin.com/en-US/|
|Garmin||Pedaling cadence wireless sensor||https://www.garmin.com/en-US/|
|23andMe||Health and ancestry genetic reports||https://www.23andme.com/|
|Concept2||Rowing ergometer, indoor rowing machine||https://www.concept2.com/indoor-rowers|
|Stages||Bicycle crank with strain gauge||https://stagescycling.com/|
|Elite||Cycling trainer that includes a power meter.||https://www.elite-it.com/it|
|Elite Medical||Protractor Goiniometer||https://www.elitemedicalemi.com/|
|Plumb Bob||A perpendicular reference line to gravity||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumb_bob|
|Strava||Tracking physical activity using GPS data||https://www.strava.com/|
|Zwift||Online cycling/running physical training program||https://zwift.com/|
|Sleep Cycle||Sleep pattern analysis and REM-based alarm clock||https://www.sleepcycle.com/|
|Nomie||Mood tracking app||https://nomie.app/|
|Balance Health||Blood pressure data analysis||https://greatergoods.com/|
|Weight Gurus||Weight tracking app connecting data from weight scale||https://weightgurus.com/|
|Kinsa Smart||Smart body temperature readings and tracking||https://www.kinsahealth.co/|
|Nuvoair||Lung function data collection and analysis||https://www.nuvoair.com/|
|Life Cycle||Tracking time on phone automatically||http://www.northcube.com/lifecycle/|
|Apple Health Kit||Health informatics mobile application and integration||https://developer.apple.com/healthkit/|
|Sensor Push||Monitors humidity, temperature, etc.||https://www.sensorpush.com/|
|Lumen||Measuring metabolism through gas analyzer||https://www.lumen.me/|
|RescueTime||Tracking time on phone and computer||https://www.rescuetime.com/|
|Concept2||Rowing data collection application||https://www.concept2.com/|
|Amazon Alexa||Virtual assistant AI technology||https://www.amazon.com|
|Nest Thermostat||Smart thermostat||https://nest.com/|
|Nest Protect||Smart smoke detector||https://nest.com/|
|IFTTT||Chains of simple conditional statements||https://ifttt.com/|
|Phillips Hue||Wireless LED lamps||https://www2.meethue.com/|
|Amazon||WiFi smart plugs||https://www.amazon.com|
|Calorie Mama||Food image recognition app||https://www.caloriemama.ai/|
|Google Maps||Satellite mapping and routing by GPS||https://www.google.com/maps|
|Epic||Medications, tests, appointments, medical bills, pricing||https://www.mychart.com/|
|BAC Track||Estimated blood alcohol level||https://www.bactrack.com/|
|Hypoxico||Pulse oximeter with Bluetooth connectivity||https://hypoxico.com/|
|One Touch||Blood glucose monitor||https://www.onetouch.com/|
|Withings Health Mate||Tracking and analysis of activity, sleep, weight, etc.||https://www.withings.com/|
|Time Out||Time tracking software||https://cws-software.com/|
|Cytoscape||Open source platform for visualizing complex networks||https://cytoscape.org/|
|UptoDate||Point-of-care medical, evidence-based clinical resource||https://www.uptodate.com/home|
|Nature Reviews||Publishing Agency||https://www.nature.com/|
|PubMed||Accessing database references/abstracts on life sciences.||https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/|
|DarkSky||Information on weather|
|In the Sky||Information on daily sunset times||https://in-the-sky.org/sunrise.php|
|Google Scholar||Web search engine of scholarly literature||https://scholar.google.com/|
|Aqicn||World-wide air quality monitoring data coverage||https://aqicn.org/sources/|
|EPA||Agency of the United States federal government||https://www.epa.gov/|
|QGIS||Open Source Geographic Information System||https://www.qgis.org/en/site/|
|Golden Cheetah||Open Source Activity Data Analysis Platform||https://www.goldencheetah.org/|
|Google Sheets||Spreadsheet program||https://www.google.com/sheets/about/|
|Apple Photos||Photo download, editing platform||https://www.apple.com/ios/photos/|
|Calorie Mama||Food image recognition and analysis||https://www.caloriemama.ai/|
|Insight Maker||Creating dynamic simulation models||https://insightmaker.com/|
|Tableau||Data visualization software||https://www.tableau.com/|
|Gephi||Open-source network visualization software||https://gephi.org/|
|Draw.io||Network drawing software||https://www.draw.io/|
|Keynote||Drawing and Presentation Software||https://www.apple.com/keynote/|