Harmonization Across Imaging Locations(HAIL): One-Shot Learning for Brain MRI

by   Abhijeet Parida, et al.

For machine learning-based prognosis and diagnosis of rare diseases, such as pediatric brain tumors, it is necessary to gather medical imaging data from multiple clinical sites that may use different devices and protocols. Deep learning-driven harmonization of radiologic images relies on generative adversarial networks (GANs). However, GANs notoriously generate pseudo structures that do not exist in the original training data, a phenomenon known as "hallucination". To prevent hallucination in medical imaging, such as magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain, we propose a one-shot learning method where we utilize neural style transfer for harmonization. At test time, the method uses one image from a clinical site to generate an image that matches the intensity scale of the collaborating sites. Our approach combines learning a feature extractor, neural style transfer, and adaptive instance normalization. We further propose a novel strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of image harmonization approaches with evaluation metrics that both measure image style harmonization and assess the preservation of anatomical structures. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in preserving patient anatomy while adjusting the image intensities to a new clinical site. Our general harmonization model can be used on unseen data from new sites, making it a valuable tool for real-world medical applications and clinical trials.


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