Hankel Matrix Nuclear Norm Regularized Tensor Completion for N-dimensional Exponential Signals

04/06/2016 ∙ by Jiaxi Ying, et al. ∙ Xiamen University 0

Signals are generally modeled as a superposition of exponential functions in spectroscopy of chemistry, biology and medical imaging. For fast data acquisition or other inevitable reasons, however, only a small amount of samples may be acquired and thus how to recover the full signal becomes an active research topic. But existing approaches can not efficiently recover N-dimensional exponential signals with N≥ 3. In this paper, we study the problem of recovering N-dimensional (particularly N≥ 3) exponential signals from partial observations, and formulate this problem as a low-rank tensor completion problem with exponential factor vectors. The full signal is reconstructed by simultaneously exploiting the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC structure and the exponential structure of the associated factor vectors. The latter is promoted by minimizing an objective function involving the nuclear norm of Hankel matrices. Experimental results on simulated and real magnetic resonance spectroscopy data show that the proposed approach can successfully recover full signals from very limited samples and is robust to the estimated tensor rank.

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I Introduction

Signal reconstruction from its sampled measurements is recognized as a fundamental theme of signal processing. Under some circumstances, these acquired measurements are incomplete due to costly experiments, hardware limitation, or other inevitable reasons. For example, for the purpose of fast data acquisition, nonuniform sampling is used to obtain partial entries of the time-domain signal in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy [1, 2, 3], which has been widely used in chemistry and biology. Recovering the full signal is essential for the next step of data analyses in these applications.

In this paper, the signal of interest can be modeled or approximated by a superposition of limited -dimensional (-D) exponentials, i.e.,

(1)

where denotes a scalar function of variables; the exponential function for any () and (), and the complex amplitudes of the associated coefficient. This formulation implies that each component -D exponential in (1) is an exponential function with respect to any variable. In particular, when , denotes a spectrally sparse signal [4, 5], i.e., a superposition of -D undamped complex sinusoids. When with the damping factor , denotes a sum of -D damped complex sinusoids. These two types of signals arise in various applications such as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars [6], harmonic analysis [7, 8, 9], analog-to-digital conversion [10], magnetic resonance imaging [11, 12], and NMR spectroscopy [1, 13]. In this paper, we study the problem of reconstructing -D exponential signals from a small amount of measurements.

Fig. 1: Summary of methods in recovering N-dimensional exponential signals.

Recently, recovering a spectrally sparse signal becomes of great interest in signal processing community [4, 5, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17]. Among emerging approaches, the compressed sensing [18]

suggests to reconstruct a signal from its partial observations if it enjoys a sparse representation in some transform domain and the observation operator satisfies some incoherence conditions. The spectrally sparse signal can be sparse in the discrete Fourier transform domain if the frequencies are aligned well with the discrete frequencies and the number of exponentials is small. In this case, signals can be recovered from very few measurements by enforcing the sparsity in the discrete Fourier domain

[18]. However, true frequencies in practical applications generally take values on a continuous domain, and the resultant basis mismatch between the true frequencies and the discretized grid [19] leads to the loss of sparsity and hence worsens the performance of compressed sensing. For the purpose of addressing this problem, total variation or atomic norm [20] minimization methods were proposed to deal with signal recovery with continuous-valued frequencies [4, 5, 9, 14]. However, these methods [4, 5, 9, 14] work only for undamped complex sinusoids but not for generic exponential signals, such as damped complex sinusoids. Furthermore, being computationally expensive, they search the solution in a space whose dimension is the square of the dimension of the underlying signal, which is intractable for large scale problems (e.g., ).

More recently, inspired by matrix pencil method [21] and matrix completion [22, 23], low rank Hankel matrix (LRHM) reconstruction [1, 26, 27, 25, 24, 28, 29] has been proposed to recover generic exponential signals. The LRHM was proposed in missing data recovery of non-uniformly sampling in realistic protein NMR spectroscopy [1], showing that broad peaks can be recovered much more reliably than minimizing the norm on the spectrum [2, 3, 30, 31]. The minimal number of samples for LRHM method is theoretically predicted when the measurements are taken with random Gaussian sampling [24]. However, LRHM is limited to recovering only 1-D signals. The -D exponential signal is possibly recovered by enhanced matrix completion (EMaC) [32] with theoretical guarantee of the stable recovery. Nonetheless, EMaC invokes minimization problems with a huge unknown matrix, prohibiting its applicability to -D () exponential signals. Note that the structured matrix based methods [14, 32] become prohibitive even in the 3-order tensor completion, because they solve the tensor completion problem by lifting to a search space whose dimension is on the order of the square of the dimension of the tensor. For example, for a signal of size , EMaC [32] needs to solve an optimization problem that involves a matrix of size . Therefore, how to recover N-D (particularly ) exponential signals still remains challenging.

It can be easily checked from (1) that the signal of interest, viewed as an -D tensor in the discrete domain, enjoys a low CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) rank and a low -rank if

is sufficiently small. Therefore, the exponential signal recovery can be formulated as a low-rank tensor completion. The low-rank tensor completion has been successfully applied to a large class of real-world problems, such as data analyses in computer vision

[33, 34], remote sensing [35], and electroencephalogram [36]. Since the rank of a tensor can be defined differently, there exist several types of low-rank tensor completion approaches, e.g., the low-CP-rank tensor completion [34, 36, 37, 38] and the low--rank tensor completion [33, 35, 39, 40]. Although both low-CP-rank and low--rank tensor completions can be applied to recover N-D (N

3) signals, they ignore the specific exponential structure, e.g. time domain signal in NMR spectroscopy, probably causing the requirement of an unnecessarily large number of observed entries for a stable recovery.

In this paper, we propose an approach to reconstruct the N-D exponential signal satisfying (1) from a small amount of samples. The proposed approach simultaneously exploits the low-CP-rank structure and the exponential structure of the associated factor vectors (See the definition in Section III). To enforce the former structure, we represent the signal in the CP decomposition form and imposed a least square fitting to the sampled data. To promote the latter structure, we penalize the nuclear norm of the Hankel matrices formed by factor vectors. We will verify, with comprehensive numerical experiments on simulated and real-world data, the effectiveness of the new method by comparisons with state-of-the-art tensor completion methods.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we will introduce the notations and related backgrounds. Section III converts the -D exponential signal reconstruction to a low-rank tensor completion problem and reviews existing low-rank tensor completion methods. In Section IV, we will propose our Hankel matrix nuclear norm regularized tensor completion approach, including the algorithm, convergence and complexity analysis. Section V presents the experimental results on simulated and real-world data. Section VI discusses higher-dimensional experiments, comparisons with other state-of-the-art methods and some parameters. Section VII concludes this work and discusses the future work.

Ii Notations and Backgrounds

Notations and backgrounds of tensors are given below.

Ii-a Notations

Notations and nomenclatures of tensors are introduced following the review paper [41] and a summary of these notations is shown in Table I.

Tensor is the generalization of matrix to high dimensions. For a tensor , the number of dimensions is called the order, also known as way or mode. Throughout the paper, the -th entry of a vector is denoted by , the -element of a matrix is denoted by , and the -element of an order- tensor is denoted by .

Symbols Notations
scalar, vector, matrix, tensor
matrix with column vectors
mode-n matricization of tensor
, transpose, hermitian transpose
mode-n fiber of tensor
matrix slice of tensor
TABLE I: Basic notations

Fibers and Slices

Fibers are the higher-order analogue of matrix rows and columns. The fiber is a collection of entries of the tensor by fixing all but one indices. The mode- fibers are all vectors that are obtained by fixing the indices . Slices are -D sections of a tensor, defined by fixing all but two indices.

Kronecker product

The Kronecker product of matrices and , denoted by , is defined by

(2)

Khatri-Rao product

The Khatri-Rao product is the columnwise Kronecker product. Given two matrices and , their Khatri-Rao product satisfies

(3)

where denotes Kronecker product.

Frobenius norm

The Frobenius norm of a tensor is the square root of the sum of the squares of the absolute value of each element, i.e.,

(4)

Ii-B CP decomposition and tensor CP-rank

factor and rank-1 tensor

An -order tensor is rank- if it can be written as the outer product of vectors as follows

where the symbol denotes the vector outer product and the vector , for all , is called a factor. This means each element of the tensor is the product of the corresponding vector elements:

for all and .

CP decomposition and tensor CP-rank

The CP decomposition [42] factorizes a tensor into a linear combination of rank- tensors. A tensor is represented with CP decomposition as

(5)

where is a positive integer and . The tensor CP-rank is defined as the smallest number of rank- tensors that composes the in (5).

Following [43], we combine the factors in CP decomposition (5) to form factor matrices

for , and the CP decomposition (5) is concisely expressed as

where and is called the Tucker operator [43]. Note that we can always rescale the factor matrices so that all the entries in are 1’s, and for simplicity, we will drop , i.e.,

Ii-C Tensor matricization and Tensor n-rank

There are some other definitions of tensor rank. The -rank is defined via tensor matricization (also known as unfolding), reordering the elements of a tensor into a matrix. The mode-n matricization of a tensor is denoted by , and the tensor element is mapped to the matrix element , where

(6)

Therefore, with . With the help of Khatri-Rao product, the mode-i matricization can be expressed as

The -rank of an -D tensor is the tuple of the ranks of the mode- unfoldings:

Iii -D exponential signal reconstruction as a tensor completion

Without loss of generality, the frequencies in (1) can be normalized with respect to the Nyquist frequency and hence the measurements are sampled at integer values. Therefore, by sampling the signal (1) on a uniform grid, we can obtain an -order tensor , and each entry can be expressed as

(7)

for , , with , and . Fig. 2 shows a graphical illustration of (7) when , implying that each component, rank- tensor in -D exponential signal (7), can be written as the outer product of vectors that are of exponential structure. Here we assume .

In this paper, we aim to recover from its small subset of entries ,

(8)

One can check that is low-rank in the sense of both CP-rank and -rank if is sufficiently small. Therefore, the problem of reconstructing the signal can be recast as a low-rank tensor completion. Depending on how the tensor rank is defined, we have a couple of possible -D exponential signal reconstruction approaches using available low-rank tensor completion methods.

Iii-a Low-CP-rank tensor completion

The signal enjoys a low CP-rank. Actually, (7) implies the following CP-decomposition

(9)

where and the factor matrices are

(10)

with

(11)

These equations imply that has a CP-rank at most . Once is relatively small, is low-CP-rank.

Fig. 2: CP decomposition for the signal of interest in 3-D.

Therefore, reconstructing from its partial entries can be formulated as a low-CP-rank tensor completion problem. There exist several methods available in the literature to solve this problem and generally they can be categorized into non-convex and convex methods. The weighted CP (WCP) decomposition method [36, 37] is a typical non-convex method, and it recovers tensors by solving the following non-convex optimization

(12)

where are the factor matrices, in which is an estimated rank. Regarding convex methods, the following optimization was proposed [38]

(13)

where

is the tensor nuclear norm defined by

It was shown that the solution (13) will be if the number of known entries exceeds a certain amount [38]. Unfortunately, (13) is NP-hard and computationally intractable. Recently some computational methods [44, 45] are proposed to approximate or equally achieve the tensor nuclear norm.

Iii-B Low-n-rank tensor completion

The signal enjoys low -rank as long as is small compared with , since the rank of the matricization of is at most if . Thus, recovering from its partial entries can be viewed as a low--rank tensor completion problem. One finds a tensor that has a small -rank [33, 35]

(14)

where is the weight and denotes the mode-n matricization.

One may approximate the non-convex objective in (14) by a convex one. The only non-convexity in (14) is the rank function. It is well known [22, 46]

that the best convex approximation of the rank function is the nuclear norm, i.e., the sum of singular values. Also, to handle data with noise, the linear constraint (

14) may be replaced by a least square fitting term. Altogether, one gets a convex optimization for low--rank tensor completion as follows

(15)

where denotes the nuclear norm of a matrix and is the regularization parameter. When for all , (15) is the convex model proposed in [35]. Low--rank tensor completion has been successfully applied in computer vision [33] and remote sensing data analyses [35].

Iv The proposed method

Though generic low-rank tensor completion methods discussed in Section III are applicable to our -D exponential signal reconstruction, they ignore the specific exponential structure of the factor vectors. From (9), it is observed that each factor matrix defined in (10) is Vandermonde matrix and each factor vector in (11) is an exponential function. As a consequence, they will need unnecessarily large number of measurements for a stable reconstruction of . Take and as an example. As discussed in [38], (13) needs known entries to give a robust recovery for low-CP-rank tensor completion, and matrix completion theory suggests that observed entries are necessary for a reliable recovery for low--rank tensor completion (15). However, there are only degree of freedoms in the signal model (7). Therefore, it is expected that, if we explore the exponential structure of the factor vectors, we can design an -D exponential signal reconstruction method that requires much fewer measurements than generic low-rank tensor completion methods.

In the following, we propose an approach that utilizes the exponential structure of the factor vectors, in addition to the low-CP-rank structure of the signal.

Iv-a The proposed model

We will use the low-CP-rank structure of the tensor , although the low--rank property is applicable as well. To promote the exponential structure of the factor vector, we enforce the Hankel matrix of each factor vector to be low-rank by nuclear norm. We propose the following reconstruction model,

(16)

where is a regularization parameter that trades off the nuclear norm against the data consistency and is a linear operator defined as , for some integers and satisfying , as follows

The is chosen to make the Hankel matrix square or approximately square to minimize the reconstruction error [32]. We call the proposed model (16) Hankel Matrix nuclear norm Regularized low-CP-rank Tensor Completion (HMRTC).

The proposed HMRTC simultaneously exploits the low-CP-rank structure and the exponential structure of the associated factor vectors, which makes it superior to existing methods. 1) HMRTC utilizes the exponential structure of factor vectors, being demonstrated in Section V that HMRTC can significantly reduce the number of necessary samples, compared with generic low-rank tensor completion methods that do not consider the structure of the factor matrices. 2) HMRTC represents the unknown tensor in a CP decomposition form, significantly reducing the size of variables in numerical algorithms, compared with atomic norm minimization (e.g. [14]) and other low-rank structured matrix methods (e.g. EMaC [32]). In particular, as we will see in Section IV-B, the numerical algorithm of HMRTC invokes matrices of size if . As a comparison, the standard alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm for solving atomic norm minimization and EMaC needs huge matrices of size . Consequently, our proposed HMRTC can easily reconstruct -D exponential signals of size , which, however, is a prohibitive task for EMaC or atomic norm minimization.

We conclude this subsection by a toy example to demonstrate the great potential of the proposed HMRTC. It is well known that neither the low--rank tensor completion nor WCP can recover missing slices [22, 36] since the information is unknown in the missing part. On the contrary, HMRTC is able to estimate these missing data because the exponential structure of one single factor is exploited. Fig. 3 shows that HMRTC can perform well even when half of the slices are missing. Thus, HMRTC will be useful for those applications requiring recover the truncated data in the end of signals to improve the frequency resolution or increase the signal-to-noise ratio [1, 47].

Fig. 3: The 3-D spectra recovered by the HMRTC from a tensor with half of slices missing. (a) The ground truth spectrum; (b) Reconstructed spectrum by filling zeroes into missing data points in the time domain and then performing Fourier transform on the full time domain signal; (c) Reconstructed spectrum by HMRTC. Note: We simulate a tensor with 10 damped complex sinusoids and discard half of slices. We draw -D spectra of tensors by using the tensor toolbox [49]. The color stands for magnitude of spectra.

Iv-B Numerical algorithm

By combining the unknown factors into factor matrices for , Eq. (16) is rewritten concisely as

(17)

where extracts the -th column from for and .

Recently, it has been shown in [34] and [48] that the ADMM is very efficient for some convex or nonconvex problems in various applications. To solve (17), we also propose an algorithm based on ADMM. Some auxiliary variables, , and are introduced and then (17) is reformulated into the following equivalent form:

(18)

For ease of presentation, we define

and

The augmented Lagrangian function of (18) is

(19)

where is the matrix of Lagrange multipliers for and .

The ADMM is an iterative algorithm. Given , , and at step , it updates , , and as follows.

The variable is updated by solving the following optimization,

(20)

Due to the multi-linearity of the CP decomposition, it is not easy to solve (20) exactly. Here, we employ an alternating minimization procedure to solve (20) approximately. Fixing , we solve (20) with respect to , which is a convex optimization as follows:

(21)

where ; and are the k-th update of and ; and are the mode- matricization of the tensors and respectively. It is obvious (21) is a least squares problem, and therefore its solution is a solution of linear system. In particular, if we define , then (21) is rewritten as

(22)

whose solution satisfies

(23)

The closed-form of are derived in Appendix A.

The variable is updated via the following optimization

(24)

which is equivalent to independent sub-problems

(25)

for and . Following [46], the closed-form solution of (25) is

(26)

where is the soft singular value thresholding operator with parameter .

Update by

(27)

The full algorithm is described in Algorithm 1. This algorithm can also be accelerated by setting , where [33, 34, 50].

0:  The tensor , the set , and parameters , ;
0:  The reconstruction of ;
1:  Initialize , , and .
2:  while  and  do
3:     Update by solving (23);
4:     Update by solving (26) for , ;
5:     Update by solving (27) for , ;
6:     Update by ;
7:     ;
8:     ; ;
9:     ;
10:  end while
Algorithm 1 The pseudo code of the proposed algorithm

Iv-C Convergence analysis

We provide the convergence of Algorithm 1 stated in Theorem 1 and Theorem 2. From the theorems, we know that the sequence generated by Algorithm 1 converges. Furthermore, if we further impose some condition on the Lagrange multipliers , then the limit is a critical point of (17).

Theorem

The sequence generated by Algorithm 1 is a Cauchy sequence.

Theorem

If , for all , , then the limit of satisfies the KKT condition for (17).

Proofs of Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 are added in Appendix C.

Iv-D Complexity analysis

The computational complexity of HMRTC is analyzed here. Besides the typical tensor operation such as Tucker operation, the running time of Algorithm 1

is dominated by the singular value decomposition (SVD) for the singular value thresholding operator in (

26). Consider to recover a tensor with . The SVD of , which is of a small size , can be done in operations. Since we have SVDs to compute at each iteration, the total computational complexity for SVD in each iteration is , which is only sub-linear with the tensor size when . Furthermore, the SVDs in a single iteration can be computed in parallel, since each , , , is updated independently. Therefore, HMRTC has the potential to be applied in -D exponential signal recovery shown in Section VI-A. In addition, from the spatial complexity point of view, the storage of HMRTC can be significantly smaller than that of the original tensor when the estimated tensor rank is much smaller than .

V Experimental Results

In this section, we will evaluate the proposed HMRTC on simulated exponential signals, including undamped and damped complex sinusoids, and real NMR spectroscopy data. Two state-of-the-art algorithms of low-rank tensor completion, the alternating direction method-based tensor recovery (ADM-TR) [35] and WCP [36], are compared with HMRTC.

The parameters of HMRTC are listed in Algorithm 1. For ADM-TR and WCP, the maximum number of iterations is . In ADM-TR, the parameters are and . The alternating least squares method is applied to solve WCP and the algorithm is terminated when , where is the objective function value in (12) after iteration .

V-a Experiment setup for simulated data

The proposed algorithm is tested on -D simulated signals as follows. The frequency is uniform randomly drawn from the interval for all and , where is the number of exponentials. The coefficient is generated by and the damping factor is generated by , where and follow the uniformly random distribution on . The undamped complex sinusoid is synthesized as

(28)

and damped complex sinusoid is simulated as

(29)

for and =1, 2, 3.

In each experiment, the simulated ground-truth tensor

is normalized by dividing the maximum magnitude of its entries. Gaussian white noise with standard deviation

is added on both real and imaginary parts of .

We denote by the reconstruction of HMRTC, i.e., the output of Algorithm 1, and the relative least normalized error (RLNE) is defined as

(30)

The average RLNE is calculated by averaging the RLNEs over Monte Carlo trials as conducted in [33, 51]. To facilitate comparison in color map, the average RLNE is set to be if it is larger than . In each trial, the observed entries are sampled in the uniformly random fashion and the sampling ratio () is denoted as the proportion of available data to the full data.

The numerical experiments are conducted on a Dell PC running Windows 7 operating system with Intel Core i7 2600 CPU and -GB RAM. The average computation time for ADM-TR, WCP and HMRTC to recover simulated signals with and is s, s and s, respectively. The average memory requirements for ADM-TR, WCP and HMRTC is GB, GB and GB, respectively.

V-B Robustness to the estimated tensor rank

We first evaluate the robustness of WCP and HMRTC to the estimated tensor rank. ADM-TR is not compared since it does not require an estimation of the tensor rank.

The comparison is presented in Fig. 4. It is observed that the HMRTC can always achieve low reconstruction errors (RLNE0.1) as increases from to , while WCP fails to recover if is over-estimated too much. In particular, when the ground truth , as shown in Fig. 4(b), WCP can work only when but HMRTC is robust to any chosen from to . Hence, HMRTC will be more useful for those applications where it is difficult to estimate the true number of exponentials. In the following simulated experiments, we set in WCP and in HMRTC.

Fig. 4: RLNE versus the estimated tensor rank. (a) and (b) illustrate reconstruction errors of WCP and HMRTC with different estimated ranks chosen from . The sampling ratio is and the number of exponentials in (a) and (b) is and , respectively. Here .

V-C Recovery of simulated complex sinusoids

In this subsection, undamped and damped complex sinusoids are simulated to evaluate the construction performance. The regularization parameter in ADM-TR is set be , and be and in HMRTC for data with noise level and , respectively.

Fig. 6 shows that HMRTC yields an average RLNE that is much smaller than ADM-TR and WCP for all ’s and ’s, no matter in recovering undamped or damped sinusoids. Furthermore, for a fixed , HMRTC needs a much smaller than ADM-TR and WCP to achieve an average RLNE within noise level, implying that HMRTC requires a much smaller number of sampled entries for the stable recovery than ADM-TR and WCP.

Fig. 5

further examines the stability of the proposed algorithm at different noise levels. It is shown that HMRTC produces reconstructions with the lowest RLNE, as well as the smallest variance, among the three methods, implying that HMRTC is the most robust to noise. The spectra of selected fibers in the reconstruction in Fig.

5(c) and Fig. 5(d) indicate that HMRTC leads to most consistent spectra to the ground-truth.

Fig. 5: Reconstruction results of ADM-TR, WCP and HMRTC from noisy data: (a) and (b) The average RLNE versus noise standard deviation in recovering undamped and damped complex sinusoid with , respectively. The sampling ratio is set to be 0.3 and 0.5 in (a) and (b), respectively. (c) and (d) The spectra of chosen fibers in reconstruction in the undamped case with and damped case with , respectively.
Fig. 6: Reconstruction errors of ADM-TR, WCP and HMRTC. (a), (b) and (c) reflect the average RLNEs by ADM-TR, WCP and HMRTC, respectively, in recovering undamped complex sinusoids with noise level . (d), (e) and (f) indicate the average RLNEs by ADM-TR, WCP and HMRTC, respectively, in recovering damped complex sinusoids with noise level .

V-D Recovery of real NMR spectroscopy data

NMR spectroscopy has been an indispensable tool in the study of structure, dynamics, and interactions of biopolymers in chemistry and biology. The duration of an N-D NMR spectroscopy experiment is proportional to the number of measured data points, and the nonuniform sampling of time domain signal can dramatically reduce measurement time [1, 52, 53, 54].Here we apply the proposed HMRTC to recover full spectrum in fast NMR, since the time domain signal of NMR is generally modeled as damped complex sinusoids[1].

Fig. 7: The H-N and H-C skyline projection spectra in the 3-D HNCO experiment. (a) the uniformly-sampled spectrum; (b), (c) and (d) are the ADM-TR, WCP and HMRTC reconstruction using 10% sampled data, respectively. The skyline projection spectra [57], plotted by summing all the frequency points along the rest dimensions, are used here to simplify the description of spectra. The experiment is carried out on a Bruker AVANCE III 600 MHz spectrometer equipped with a cryogenic probe at 293K. The estimated rank in WCP and HMRTC is and , respectively. The in ADM-TR and HRMTC is and , respectively. The ppm denotes parts per million, the unit of chemical shift.

A -D HNCO spectrum is tested and its sample is the U-[N, C] RNA recognition motifs domain of protein RNA binding motif protein [55], which is a component of the spliceosome A-complex. The ADM-TR, WCP and HMRTC are compared in recovering this -D spectrum with the size of 64128512 from a -D Poisson-gap [52] nonuniformly sampled time-domain data. All the spectra are processed in NMRPipe [56] using a routine processing manner.

Fig. 7 shows that HMRTC leads to the most faithful recovery (Fig. 7(d)) of the ground truth (Fig. 7(a)) than ADM-TR (Fig. 7(b)) and WCP (Fig. 7(c)). Moreover, Fig. 7(d) indicates that HMRTC can achieve high quality of reconstruction even with the sampling rate 10% and hence allow a significant reduction in measurement time. Thus, the proposed HMRTC algorithm may serve as a versatility method for studying biological or chemical molecules using N-D NMR spectroscopy.

Vi Discussions

In the following, a RLNE smaller than is considered as a low reconstruction error since the corresponding energy loss is less than .

Vi-a Higher-dimensional experiments

A -D experiment is conducted to explore the capability of HMRTC in higher-dimensional exponential signal recovery. Fig. 8(a) indicates that HMRTC achieves a low reconstruction error although is as large as around times of ambient dimensions. The reconstruction error will increase dramatically when further increases (). Therefore, HMRTC has the potential to reconstruct the signal with a quite larger than ambient dimensions. However, reconstructing a signal with larger needs further development.

Fig. 8: (a) The reconstruction error by HMRTC on -D data with the size and sampling rate . (b) The effect of different initializations on the -D data in Fig. 3 with sampling ratio . We sort the RLNE for better visualization though these RLNEs are randomly distributed in experiments.

Vi-B Comparison with other state-of-the-art methods

Another three state-of-the-art methods, ADMM-R [45], TNN [44] and FaLRTC [33], are compared with the proposed HMRTC on undamped complex sinusoid recovery. Since tensor nuclear norm is computationally intractable, the approximate solution was proposed recently in [44] by providing sub-optimality guarantees. More recently, another computational method to equally achieve tensor nuclear norm was proposed in a preprint paper [45]. FaLRTC [33] is another typical method in tensor completion which minimizes low -rank. Fig. 9 shows that HMRTC holds advantage over ADMM-R [45], TNN [44] and FaLRTC [33] on achieving much lower reconstruction errors. Note that the estimated tensor rank is set to be exactly ground-truth number of exponentials in ADMM-R [45], which may be unknown in practice.

Fig. 9: Comparison between HMRTC with other state-of-the-art methods. (a) and (b) show average RLNEs by TNN [44] and HMRTC for real exponential signal recovery, respectively; (c) and (d) indicate average RLNEs by ADMM-R [45] and HMRTC for complex exponential signal recovery, respectively; (e) and (f) show average RLNEs by FaLRTC [33] and HMRTC for noiseless complex exponential signal recovery. The experiment settings are based on the consideration that TNN [44] cannot support complex number and FaLRTC [33] aims to recover noiseless tensors.

Vi-C Success rate of factor vector recovery

The low-CP-rank completion method may lead the factor vector to be consisted of single or multiple exponentials in real applications [59]. Considering the proposed model also explores the low-CP-rank structure, one may wonder the possibility of the reconstructed factor vectors being a single exponential as it was introduced in (1). Here we discuss this possibility based on numerical experiments.

Following [60], the factor vector recovery is declared successful if

for all , where is the recovery of the ground truth . Here the empirical success rate is calculated by averaging over Monte Carlo trials.

Fig. 10 indicates that HMRTC has a high probability to achieve accurate factor vectors, as long as the sampling ratio is sufficiently large, though it is not theoretically guaranteed.

Fig. 10: The empirical success rate of the factor vector recovery versus sampling ratio. The simulated signals contains 10 exponentials. We set and , and measurements are randomly sampled.

Vi-D Frequency estimation

Although the focus of this work lies in reconstructing a full N-D exponential signal from partial measurements, it is still important to estimate frequency in some applications. Here, we adopt the method in [58] to estimate the frequency and root mean square error (RMSE) to quantify the accuracy of estimation. The RMSE is defined as

where denotes the estimated frequency of the fully sampled signal, the estimated frequency of the reconstructed signal, and the number of exponentials. Table II indicates that the proposed HMRTC obtains the best frequency estimation, comparing with ADM-TR and WCP.

# Peaks
Estimated frequencies
from noiseless full data
Frequency errors ()
ADM-TR WCP Proposed
1 (0.12201, 0.45297, 0.31506) (Failed,108, 338) (9, 1, 5) (3,2,2)
2 (0.23503, 0.54308, 0.38204) (Failed, 2913, 579) (1, 5, 20) (1,1,1)
3 (0.26608, 0.57491, 0.44104) (Failed, 7207, 3499) (2, 2, 1) (2,0,1)
4 (0.31721, 0.64294, 0.47386) (Failed, 8213 ,7507) (6, 14, 2) (1,0,0)
5 (0.38207, 0.72565, 0.55160) (252, 1471, 3559) (5, 0, 1) (2,2,3)
6 (0.41720, 0.74228, 0.58575) (Failed, 7016, 418) (2, 4, 0) (2,1,0)
7 (0.44421, 0.81311, 0.62796) (Failed, 3299, 6558) (0, 4, 3) (1,1,0)
8 (0.56599, 0.84617, 0.69391) (Failed, 5922, 4492) (3, 0, 3) (0,1,2)
9 (0.62214, 0.90486, 0.73689) (235, 3533, 6835) (6, 1,3) (0,0,1)
10 (0.69392, 0.94303, 0.81405) (51, 105, 388) (2, 0, 3) (1,0,1)
  • Note: The signal reconstruction error, RLNE, of ADM-TR, WCP and the proposed method are 0.9321, 0.0373 and 0.0105, respectively. The Failed means that too many pseudo peaks are presented thus the frequency cannot be estimated. The noisy -D signal with known frequencies in Fig. 3 is used for simulation. The number of peaks is 10 and the sampling rate is 6%.

TABLE II: Frequency estimation from different reconstructions.

Vi-E Regularization parameter

The optimal in HMRTC, producing the lowest reconstruction error, generally decreases as the noise level increases. For example, as shown in Fig. 11(a), the optimal is , and when the noise level is , and , respectively. This trend means that a smaller