# Graphs without gap-vertex-labellings: families and bounds

A proper labelling of a graph G is a pair (π,c_π) in which π is an assignment of numeric labels to some elements of G, and c_π is a colouring induced by π through some mathematical function over the set of labelled elements. In this work, we consider gap-vertex-labellings, in which the colour of a vertex is determined by a function considering the largest difference between the labels assigned to its neighbours. We present the first upper-bound for the vertex-gap number of arbitrary graphs, which is the least number of labels required to properly label a graph. We investigate families of graphs which do not admit any gap-vertex-labelling, regardless of the number of labels. Furthermore, we introduce a novel parameter associated with this labelling and provide bounds for it for complete graphs K_n.

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