Generating Extended Resolution Proofs with a BDD-Based SAT Solver

05/03/2021 ∙ by Randal E. Bryant, et al. ∙ 0

In 2006, Biere, Jussila, and Sinz made the key observation that the underlying logic behind algorithms for constructing Reduced, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) can be encoded as steps in a proof in the extended resolution logical framework. Through this, a BDD-based Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solver can generate a checkable proof of unsatisfiability for a set of clauses. Such a proof indicates that the formula is truly unsatisfiable without requiring the user to trust the BDD package or the SAT solver built on top of it. We extend their work to enable arbitrary existential quantification of the formula variables, a critical capability for BDD-based SAT solvers. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by applying a prototype solver to several problems that are very challenging for search-based SAT solvers, obtaining polynomially sized proofs on benchmarks for parity formulas, as well as the Urquhart, mutilated chessboard, and pigeonhole problems.



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