Fractional Modeling in Action: A Survey of Nonlocal Models for Subsurface Transport, Turbulent Flows, and Anomalous Materials

10/22/2021
by   Jorge Suzuki, et al.
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Modeling of phenomena such as anomalous transport via fractional-order differential equations has been established as an effective alternative to partial differential equations, due to the inherent ability to describe large-scale behavior with greater efficiency than fully-resolved classical models. In this review article, we first provide a broad overview of fractional-order derivatives with a clear emphasis on the stochastic processes that underlie their use. We then survey three exemplary application areas - subsurface transport, turbulence, and anomalous materials - in which fractional-order differential equations provide accurate and predictive models. For each area, we report on the evidence of anomalous behavior that justifies the use of fractional-order models, and survey both foundational models as well as more expressive state-of-the-art models. We also propose avenues for future research, including more advanced and physically sound models, as well as tools for calibration and discovery of fractional-order models.

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