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FPGA Acceleration of Sequence Alignment: A Survey

by   Sahand Salamat, et al.
University of California, San Diego

Genomics is changing our understanding of humans, evolution, diseases, and medicines to name but a few. As sequencing technology is developed collecting DNA sequences takes less time thereby generating more genetic data every day. Today the rate of generating genetic data is outpacing the rate of computation power growth. Current sequencing machines can sequence 50 humans genome per day; however, aligning the read sequences against a reference genome and assembling the genome will take 1300 CPU hours. The main step in constructing the genome is aligning the reads against a reference genome. Numerous accelerators have been proposed to accelerate the DNA alignment process. Providing massive parallelism, FPGA-based accelerators have shown great performance in accelerating DNA alignment algorithms. Additionally, FPGA-based accelerators provide better energy efficiency than general-purpose processors. In this survey, we introduce three main DNA alignment algorithms and FPGA-based implementation of these algorithms to accelerate the DNA alignment. We also, compare these three alignment categories and show how accelerators are developing during the time.


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