Forgery Blind Inspection for Detecting Manipulations of Gel Electrophoresis Images

10/28/2020 ∙ by Hao-Chiang Shao, et al. ∙ 0

Recently, falsified images have been found in papers involved in research misconducts. However, although there have been many image forgery detection methods, none of them was designed for molecular-biological experiment images. In this paper, we proposed a fast blind inquiry method, named FBI_GEL, for integrity of images obtained from two common sorts of molecular experiments, i.e., western blot (WB) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Based on an optimized pseudo-background capable of highlighting local residues, FBI_GEL can reveal traceable vestiges suggesting inappropriate local modifications on WB/PCR images. Additionally, because the optimized pseudo-background is derived according to a closed-form solution, FBI_GEL is computationally efficient and thus suitable for large scale inquiry tasks for WB/PCR image integrity. We applied FBI_GEL on several papers questioned by the public on PUBPEER, and our results show that figures of those papers indeed contain doubtful unnatural patterns.

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