Finding Critical Nodes in Interdependent Networks with SAT and ILP Solvers

by   Kyozo Hida, et al.

Infrastructure systems, such as power systems, often experience cascading failures. Modeling an infrastructure system as a collection of interdependent networks has recently received attention as a way to explain cascading failures. In this study, we propose an approach to find the set of critical nodes in an interdependent network. For an integer k, we say that a set of k nodes is critical if the initial failures of these k nodes result in the most severe cascading failure among all sets of k nodes. This approach adopts the seminal model of interdependent networks proposed by Buldyrev et al., in which new link failures occur in a network if the connectivity is lost in the paired network. The problem of finding critical nodes is NP-hard; thus the aim of the approach is to accurately solve the problem in feasible time for moderate-size problem instances. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, the maximum number of failure propagation stages is computed by repeatedly solving the Boolean satisfiability problem. This number is then used in the second phase, where the set of critical nodes is computed using integer linear programming. The results of applying this approach to a variety of problem instances demonstrate that the approach is feasible for up to at least 30 nodes and can be used as the baseline to compare the performance of heuristic solutions.


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