# Finding a Small Number of Colourful Components

A partition (V_1,...,V_k) of the vertex set of a graph G with a (not necessarily proper) colouring c is colourful if no two vertices in any V_i have the same colour and every set V_i induces a connected graph. The COLOURFUL PARTITION problem is to decide whether a coloured graph (G,c) has a colourful partition of size at most k. This problem is closely related to the COLOURFUL COMPONENTS problem, which is to decide whether a graph can be modified into a graph whose connected components form a colourful partition by deleting at most p edges. Nevertheless we show that COLOURFUL PARTITION and COLOURFUL COMPONENTS may have different complexities for restricted instances. We tighten known NP-hardness results for both problems and in addition we prove new hardness and tractability results for COLOURFUL PARTITION. Using these results we complete our paper with a thorough parameterized study of COLOURFUL PARTITION.

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