Federated Learning on the Road: Autonomous Controller Design for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

02/05/2021 ∙ by Tengchan Zeng, et al. ∙ 0

A new federated learning (FL) framework enabled by large-scale wireless connectivity is proposed for designing the autonomous controller of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). In this framework, the learning models used by the controllers are collaboratively trained among a group of CAVs. To capture the varying CAV participation in the FL training process and the diverse local data quality among CAVs, a novel dynamic federated proximal (DFP) algorithm is proposed that accounts for the mobility of CAVs, the wireless fading channels, as well as the unbalanced and nonindependent and identically distributed data across CAVs. A rigorous convergence analysis is performed for the proposed algorithm to identify how fast the CAVs converge to using the optimal autonomous controller. In particular, the impacts of varying CAV participation in the FL process and diverse CAV data quality on the convergence of the proposed DFP algorithm are explicitly analyzed. Leveraging this analysis, an incentive mechanism based on contract theory is designed to improve the FL convergence speed. Simulation results using real vehicular data traces show that the proposed DFP-based controller can accurately track the target CAV speed over time and under different traffic scenarios. Moreover, the results show that the proposed DFP algorithm has a much faster convergence compared to popular FL algorithms such as federated averaging (FedAvg) and federated proximal (FedProx). The results also validate the feasibility of the contract-theoretic incentive mechanism and show that the proposed mechanism can improve the convergence speed of the DFP algorithm by 40 baselines.

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