# Fan-Crossing Free Graphs

A graph is fan-crossing free if it admits a drawing in the plane so that each edge can be crossed by independent edges. Then the crossing edges have distinct vertices. In complement, a graph is fan-crossing if each edge can be crossed by edges of a fan. Then the crossing edges are incident to a common vertex. Graphs are k-planar if each edge is crossed by at most k edges, and k-gap-planar if each crossing is assigned to an edge involved in the crossing, so that at most k crossings are assigned to each edge. We use the s-subdivision, path-addition, and node-to-circle expansion operations to show that there are fan-crossing free graphs that are not fan-crossing, k-planar, and k-gap-planar for k >= 1, respectively. A path-addition adds a long path between any two vertices to a graph. An s-subdivision replaces an edge by a path of length s, and a node-to-circle expansion substitutes a vertex by a 3-regular circle, so that each vertex of the circle inherits an edge incident to the original vertex. We introduce universality for an operation and a graph class, so the every graph has an image in the graph class. In particular, we show the fan22 crossing free graphs are universal for 2-subdivision and for node-to-circle 3 expansion. Finally, we show that some graphs have a unique fan-crossing free embedding, that there are maximal fan-crossing free graphs with less edges than the density, and that the recognition problem for fan-crossing free graphs is NP-complete.

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