# Extrapolating the profile of a finite population

We study a prototypical problem in empirical Bayes. Namely, consider a population consisting of k individuals each belonging to one of k types (some types can be empty). Without any structural restrictions, it is impossible to learn the composition of the full population having observed only a small (random) subsample of size m = o(k). Nevertheless, we show that in the sublinear regime of m =ω(k/log k), it is possible to consistently estimate in total variation the profile of the population, defined as the empirical distribution of the sizes of each type, which determines many symmetric properties of the population. We also prove that in the linear regime of m=c k for any constant c the optimal rate is Θ(1/log k). Our estimator is based on Wolfowitz's minimum distance method, which entails solving a linear program (LP) of size k. We show that there is a single infinite-dimensional LP whose value simultaneously characterizes the risk of the minimum distance estimator and certifies its minimax optimality. The sharp convergence rate is obtained by evaluating this LP using complex-analytic techniques.

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