# Explainable, Stable, and Scalable Graph Convolutional Networks for Learning Graph Representation

The network embedding problem that maps nodes in a graph to vectors in Euclidean space can be very useful for addressing several important tasks on a graph. Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have been proposed for solving such a problem. However, most embedding algorithms and GNNs are difficult to interpret and do not scale well to handle millions of nodes. In this paper, we tackle the problem from a new perspective based on the equivalence of three constrained optimization problems: the network embedding problem, the trace maximization problem of the modularity matrix in a sampled graph, and the matrix factorization problem of the modularity matrix in a sampled graph. The optimal solutions to these three problems are the dominant eigenvectors of the modularity matrix. We proposed two algorithms that belong to a special class of graph convolutional networks (GCNs) for solving these problems: (i) Clustering As Feature Embedding GCN (CAFE-GCN) and (ii) sphere-GCN. Both algorithms are stable trace maximization algorithms, and they yield good approximations of dominant eigenvectors. Moreover, there are linear-time implementations for sparse graphs. In addition to solving the network embedding problem, both proposed GCNs are capable of performing dimensionality reduction. Various experiments are conducted to evaluate our proposed GCNs and show that our proposed GCNs outperform almost all the baseline methods. Moreover, CAFE-GCN could be benefited from the labeled data and have tremendous improvements in various performance metrics.

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