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Exact Simulation of Max-Infinitely Divisible Processes

by   Peng Zhong, et al.

Max-infinitely divisible (max-id) processes play a central role in extreme-value theory and include the subclass of all max-stable processes. They allow for a constructive representation based on the componentwise maximum of random functions drawn from a Poisson point process defined on a suitable functions space. Simulating from a max-id process is often difficult due to its complex stochastic structure, while calculating its joint density in high dimensions is often numerically infeasible. Therefore, exact and efficient simulation techniques for max-id processes are useful tools for studying the characteristics of the process and for drawing statistical inferences. Inspired by the simulation algorithms for max-stable processes, we here develop theory and algorithms to generalize simulation approaches tailored for certain flexible (existing or new) classes of max-id processes. Efficient simulation for a large class of models can be achieved by implementing an adaptive rejection sampling scheme to sidestep a numerical integration step in the algorithm. We present the results of a simulation study highlighting that our simulation algorithm works as expected and is highly accurate and efficient, such that it clearly outperforms customary approximate sampling schemes. As a byproduct, we also develop here new max-id models, which can be represented as pointwise maxima of general location scale mixtures, and which possess flexible tail dependence structures capturing a wide range of asymptotic dependence scenarios.


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