Estimating efficacy of measles supplementary immunization activities via discrete-time modeling of disease incidence time series

by   Tracy Qi Dong, et al.

Measles is a significant source of global disease burden and child mortality. Measles vaccination through routine immunization (RI) programs in high-burden settings remains a challenge due to poor health care infrastructure and access. Supplementary immunization activities (SIA) in the form of vaccination campaigns are therefore implemented to prevent measles outbreaks by reducing the size of the susceptible population. The SIA efficacy, defined as the fraction of susceptible population immunized by an SIA, is a critical metric for assessing campaign effectiveness. We propose a discrete-time hidden Markov model for estimating SIA efficacy and forecasting future incidence trends using reported measles incidence data. Our approach extends the time-series susceptible-infected-recovered (TSIR) framework by adding a model component to capture the impact of SIAs on the susceptible population. It also accounts for under-reporting and its associated uncertainty via a two-stage estimation procedure with uncertainty propagation. The proposed model can be used to estimate the underlying susceptible population dynamics, assess how many susceptible people were immunized by past SIAs, and forecast incidence trends in the future under various hypothetical SIA scenarios. We examine model performance via simulations under various levels of under-reporting, and apply the model to analyze monthly reported measles incidence in Benin from 2012 to 2018.


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