People can easily learn how to break concrete with a sledgehammer or cut hay using a scythe by observing other people performing such tasks in instructional videos, for example. They can also easily perform the same task in a different context. This involves advanced visual intelligence capabilities such as recognizing and interpreting complex person-object interactions that achieve a specific goal. Understanding such complex interactions is a key to building autonomous machines that learn how to interact with the physical world by observing people.
This work makes a step in this direction and describes a method to estimate the 3D motion and actuation forces of a person manipulating an object given a single unconstrained video as input. This is an extremely challenging task. First, there are inherent ambiguities in the 2D-to-3D mapping from a single view: multiple 3D human poses correspond to the same 2D input. Second, human-object interactions often involve contacts, resulting in discontinuities in the motion of the object and the human body part in contact. For example, one must place a hand on the hammer handle before picking the hammer up. The contact motion strongly depends on the physical quantities such as the mass of the object and the contact forces exerted by the hand, which renders modeling of contacts a very difficult task. Finally, the tools we consider in this work, such as hammer, scythe, or spade, are particularly difficult to recognize due to their thin structure, lack of texture, and frequent occlusions by hands and other human parts.
To address these challenges, we propose a method to jointly estimate the 3D trajectory of both the person and the object by visually recognizing contacts in the video and modeling the dynamics of the interactions. We focus on rigid stick-like hand tools (e.g. hammer, barbell, spade, scythe) with no articulation and approximate them as 3D line segments. Our key idea is that, when a human joint is in contact with an object, the object can be integrated as a constraint on the movement of the human limb. For example, the hammer provides a constraint on the relative depth between the person’s two hands. Conversely, 3D positions of the hands in contact with the hammer provide a constraint on the hammer’s depth and 3D rotation. To deal with contact forces, we integrate physics in the estimation by modeling dynamics of the person and the object. Inspired by recent progress in humanoid locomotion research 
, we formulate person-object trajectory estimation as an optimal control problem given the contact state of each human joint. We show that contact states can be automatically recognized from the input video using a deep neural network.
2 Related work
Here we review the key areas of related work in both computer vision and robotics literature.
Single-view 3D pose estimation aims to recover the 3D joint configuration of the person from the input image. Recent human 3D pose estimators either attempt to build a direct mapping from image pixels to the 3D joints of the human body or break down the task into two stages: estimating pixel coordinates of the joints in the input image and then lifting the 2D skeleton to 3D. Existing direct approaches either rely on generative models to search the state space for a plausible 3D skeleton that aligns with the image evidence [57, 25, 24]
or, more recently, extract deep features from images and learn a discriminative regressor from the 2D image to the 3D pose[36, 47, 51, 60]. Building on the recent progress in 2D human pose estimation [49, 48, 33, 14], two-stage methods have been shown to be very effective [5, 69, 9, 18] and achieve state-of-the-art results  on 3D human pose benchmarks . To deal with depth ambiguities, these estimators rely on good pose priors, which are either hand-crafted or learnt from large-scale MoCap data [69, 9, 36]. However, unlike our work, these methods do not consider explicit models for 3D person-object interactions with contacts.
Understanding human-object interactions involves both recognition of actions and modeling of interactions. In action recognition, most existing approaches that model human-object interactions do not consider 3D, instead model interactions and contacts in the 2D image space [28, 19, 68, 53]
. Recent work in scene understanding[35, 23] consider interactions in 3D but have focused on static scene elements rather than manipulated objects as we do in this work. Tracking 3D poses of people interacting with the environment has been demonstrated for bipedal walking [12, 13] or in sports scenarios . However, these works do not consider interactions with objects. Furthermore,  requires manual annotation of the input video.
There is also related work on modeling person-object interactions in robotics  and computer animation . Similarly to people, humanoid robots interact with the environment by creating and breaking contacts , for example, during walking. Typically, generating artificial motion is formulated as an optimal control problem, transcribed into a high-dimensional numerical optimization problem, seeking to minimize an objective function under contact and feasibility constraints [20, 56]. A known difficulty is handling the non-smoothness of the resulting optimization problem introduced by the creation and breaking of contacts . Due to this difficulty, the sequence of contacts is often computed separately and not treated as a decision variable in the optimizer [37, 62]. Recent work has shown that it may be possible to decide both the continuous movement and the contact sequence together, either by implicitly formulating the contact constraints  or by using invariances to smooth the resulting optimization problem [46, 66].
In this paper, we take advantage of rigid-body models introduced in robotics and formulate the problem of estimating 3D person-object interactions from monocular video as an optimal control problem under contact constraints. We overcome the difficulty of contact irregularity by first identifying the contact states from the visual input, and then localizing the contact points in 3D via our trajectory estimator. This allows us to treat multi-contact sequences (like walking) without manually annotating the contact phases.
Object 3D pose estimation methods often require depth or RGB-D data as input [59, 21, 32], which is restrictive since depth information is not always available (e.g. for outdoor scenes or specular objects), as is the case of our instructional videos. Recent work has also attempted to recover object pose from RGB input only [11, 54, 67, 38, 50, 27, 55]. However, we found that the performance of these methods is limited for the stick-like objects we consider in this work. Instead, we recover the 3D pose of the object via localizing and segmenting the object in 2D, and then jointly recovering the 3D trajectory of both the human limbs and the object. As a result, both the object and the human pose help each other to improve their joint 3D trajectory by leveraging the contact constraints.
Instructional videos. Our work is also related to recent efforts in learning form Internet instructional videos [44, 6, 6] that aim to segment input videos into clips containing consistent actions. In contrast, we focus on extracting a detailed representation of the object manipulation in the form of a 3D person-object trajectory with contacts and underlying manipulation forces.
3 Approach overview
We are given a video clip of a person manipulating an object or in another way interacting with the scene. Our approach, illustrated in Fig. 1, receives as input a sequence of frames and automatically outputs the 3D trajectories of the human body, the manipulated object, and the ground plane. At the same time, it localizes the contact points and recovers the contact forces that actuate the motion of the person and the object. Our approach proceeds along two stages. In the first, recognition stage, we extract 2D measurements from the input video. These consist of 2D locations of human joints, 2D locations of a small number of predefined object keypoints, and contact states of selected joints over the course of the video. In the second, estimation stage, these image measurements are then fused in order to estimate the 3D motion, 3D contacts, and the controlling forces of both the person and the object. The person and object trajectories, contact positions, and contact forces are constrained jointly by our carefully designed contact motion model, force model, and dynamics equations. Finally, the reconstructed object manipulation sequence can be applied to control a humanoid robot via behavior cloning.
In the following, we start in Section 4 by describing the estimation stage giving details of the formulation as an optimal control problem. Then, in Section 5 we give details of the recognition stage including 2D human pose estimation, contact recognition, and object 2D key-point estimation. Finally, we describe results in Section 6.
4 Estimating person-object trajectory under contact and dynamics constraints
We assume that we are provided with a video clip of duration
depicting a human subject manipulating an object. We encode the 3D poses of the human and the object, including joint translations and rotations, in the configuration vectorsand , for the human and the object respectively. We define a constant set of contact points between the human body and the object (or the ground plane). Each contact point corresponds to a human joint, and is activated whenever that human joint is recognized as in contact. At each contact point, we define a contact force , whose value is non-zero whenever the contact point is active. The state of the complete dynamical system is then obtained by concatenating the human and the object joint configurations and velocities as . Let be the joint torque vector describing the actuation by human muscles. This is a dimensional vector where is the dimension of the human body configuration vector. We define the control variable as the combination of the joint torque vector together with contact forces at the contact joints, . To deal with sliding contacts, we further define a contact state that consists of the relative positions of all the contact points with respect to the object (or ground) in the 3D space.
Our goal is two-fold. We wish to (i) estimate smooth and consistent human-object and contact trajectories and , while (ii) recovering the control which gives rise to the observed motion111In this paper, trajectories are denoted as underlined variables, e.g. .. This is achieved by jointly optimizing the 3D trajectory , contacts , and control given the measurements (2D positions of human joints and object end-points together with contact states of human joints) obtained from the input video. The intuition is that the human and the object’s 3D poses should match their respective projections in the image while their 3D motion is linked together by the recognized contact points and the corresponding contact forces. In detail, we formulate person-object interaction estimation as an optimal control problem with contact and dynamics constraints:
. The loss functionis a weighted sum of multiple costs capturing (i) the data term measuring the discrepancy between the observed and re-projected 2D joint and object key-point positions, (ii) the prior on the estimated 3D poses, (iii) the physical plausibility of the motion and (iv) the smoothness of the trajectory. Next, we in turn describe these cost terms as well as the insights leading to their design choices. For simplicity, we ignore the superscript when introducing a cost term that exists for both the human and the object component of the loss. We describe the individual terms using continuous time notation as used in the overall problem formulation (1). A discrete version of the problem, together with the optimization and implementation details are relegated to Section 4.5.
4.1 Data term: 2D re-projection error
We wish to minimize the re-projection error of the estimated 3D human joints and 3D object key-points with respect to the 2D measurements obtained in each video frame. In detail, let be human joints or object key-points and their 2D position observed in the image. We aim to minimize the following data term
where is the camera projection matrix and the 3D position of joint or object key-point induced by the person-object configuration vector
. To deal with outliers, we use the robust Huber loss, denoted by.
4.2 Prior on 3D human poses
A single 2D skeleton can be a projection of multiple 3D poses, many of which are unnatural or impossible exceeding the human joint limits. To resolve this, we incorporate into the human loss function a pose prior similar to . The pose prior is obtained by fitting the SMPL human model  to the CMU MoCap data  using MoSh 
and fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the resulting SMPL 3D poses. We map our human configuration vectorto a SMPL pose vector and compute the likelihood under the pre-trained GMM
During optimization, is minimized in order to favor more plausible human poses against rare or impossible ones.
4.3 Physical plausibility of the motion
Human-object interactions involve contacts coupled with interaction forces, which are not included in the data-driven cost terms (5) and (6). Modeling contacts and physics is thus important to reconstruct object manipulation actions from the input video. Next, we outline models for describing the motion of the contacts and the forces at the contact points. Finally, the contact motions and forces, together with the system state , are linked by the laws of mechanics via the dynamics equations, which constrain the estimated person-object interaction. This full body dynamics constraint is detailed at the end of this subsection.
In the recognition stage, our contact recognizer predicts, given a human joint (for example, left hand, denoted by ), a sequence of contact states . Similarly to , we call a contact phase any time segment in which is in contact, i.e., . Our key idea is that the 3D distance between human joint and the active contact point on the object (denoted by ) should remain zero during a contact phase:
where and are the 3D positions of joint and object contact point , respectively. Note that position of the object contact point depends on the state vector describing the human-object configuration and the relative position of the contact along the object. The position of contact is subject to a feasible range denoted by . For stick-like objects such as hammer, is approximately the 3D line segment representing the handle. For the ground, the feasible range is a 3D plane. In practice, we implement by putting a constraint on the trajectory of relative contact positions .
Equation (7) applies to most common cases where the contact area can be modeled as a point. Examples include the hand-handle contact and the knee-ground contact. To model the planar contact between the human sole and ground, we approximate each sole surface as a planar polygon with four vertices, and apply the point contact model at each vertex. In our human model, each sole is attached to its parent ankle joint, and therefore the four vertex contact points of the sole are active when .
The resulting overall contact motion function in problem (1) is obtained by unifying the point and the planar contact models:
where the external sum is over all human joints. The internal sum is over the set of active object contact points mapped to their corresponding human joint by mapping . The mapping translates the position of an ankle joint to its corresponding -th sole vertex; it is an identity mapping for non-ankle joints.
During a contact phase of the human joint , the environment exerts a contact force on each of the active contact points in . is always expressed in contact point ’s local coordinate frame. We distinguish two types of contact forces: (i) 6D spatial forces exerted by objects and (ii) 3D linear forces due to ground friction. In the case of object contact,
is an unconstrained 6D spatial force with 3D linear force and 3D moment. In the case of ground friction,is constrained to lie inside a 3D friction cone (also known as the quadratic Lorentz “ice-cream” cone ) characterized by a positive friction coefficient . In practice, we approximate by a 3D pyramid spanned by a basis of generators, which allows us to represent as the convex combination , where and with are the 3D generators of the contact force. We sum the contact forces induced by the four sole-ground contact points and express a unified contact force in the ankle’s frame:
where is the position of contact point expressed in joint ’s (left/right ankle) frame, is the cross product operator, , and are the 6D generators of . Please see the appendix for additional details including the expressions of and .
Full body dynamics.
The full-body movement of the person and the manipulated object is described by the Lagrange dynamics equation:
where is the generalized mass matrix, covers the centrifugal and Coriolis effects, is the generalized gravity vector and represents the joint torque contributions. and are the joint velocities and joint accelerations, respectively. Note that (10) is a unified equation which applies to both human and object dynamics, hence we drop the superscript here. Only the expression of the joint torque differs between the human and the object and we give the two expressions next.
For human, it is the sum of two contributions: the first one corresponds to the internal joint torques (exerted by the muscles for instance) and the second one comes from the contact forces:
where is the human joint torque exerted by muscles, is the contact force at contact point and is the Jacobian mapping human joint velocities to the Cartesian velocity of contact point expressed in ’s local frame. Let denote the dimension of , and , then and are of dimension and , respectively. We model the human body and the object as free-floating base systems. In the case of human body, the six first entries in the configuration vector correspond to the 6D pose of the free-floating base (translation + orientation), which is not actuated by any internal actuators such as human muscles. This constraint is taken into consideration by adding the zeros in Eq. (11).
In the case of the manipulated object, there is no actuation other than the contact forces exerted by the human. Therefore, the object torque is expressed as
where the sum is over the object contact points, is the contact force, and denotes the object Jacobian, which maps from the object joint velocities to the Cartesian velocity of the object contact point expressed in ’s local frame. is a matrix where is the dimension of object configuration vectors , and .
4.4 Enforcing the trajectory smoothness
Regularizing human and object motion. Taking advantage of the temporal continuity of video, we minimize the sum of squared 3D joint velocities and accelerations to improve the smoothness of the person and object motion and to remove incorrect 2D poses. We include the following motion smoothing term to the human and object loss in (1):
where and are the spatial velocity and the spatial acceleration222Spatial velocities (accelerations) are minimal and unified representations of linear and angular velocities (accelerations) of a rigid body . They are of dimension 6. of joint , respectively. In the case of object, represents a key-point on the object. By minimizing , both the linear and angular movements of each joint/key-point are smoothed simultaneously.
Regularizing contact motion and forces.
In addition to regularizing the motion of the joints, we also regularize the contact states and control by minimizing the velocity of the contact points and the temporal variation of the contact force. This is implemented by including the following contact smoothing term in the cost function in problem (1):
where and represent respectively the temporal variation of the position and the contact force at contact point . and are scalar weights of the regularization terms and . Note that some contact points, for example the four contact points of the human sole during the sole-ground contact, should remain fixed with respect to the object or the ground during the contact phase. To tackle this, we adjust to prevent contact point form sliding while being in contact.
Conversion to a numerical optimization problem. We convert the continuous problem (1) into a discrete nonlinear optimization problem using the collocation approach . All trajectories are discretized and constraints (2), (3), (4) are only enforced on the “collocation” nodes of a time grid matching the discrete sequence of video frames. The optimization variables are the sequence of human and object poses , torque and force controls , contact locations , and the scene parameters (ground plane and camera matrix). The resulting problem is nonlinear, constrained and sparse (due to the sequential structure of trajectory optimization). We rely on the Ceres solver , which is dedicated to solving sparse estimation problems (e.g. bundle adjustment ) and on the Pinocchio software [2, 17] for the efficient computation of kinematic and dynamic quantities, and their derivatives . Additional details are provided in the appendix.
Correctly initializing the solver is key to escape from poor local minima. We warm-start the optimization by inferring the initial configuration vector at each frame using the human body estimator HMR  that estimates the 3D joint angles from a single RGB image.
5 Extracting 2D measurements from video
In this section, we describe how 2D measurements are extracted from the input video frames during the first, recognition stage of our system. In particular, we extract the 2D human joint positions, the 2D object endpoint positions and the contact states of human joints.
Estimating 2D positions of human joints.
We use the state-of-the-art Openpose  human 2D pose estimator, which achieved excellent performance on the MPII Multi-Person benchmark . Taking a pretrained Openpose model, we do a forward pass on the input video in a frame-by-frame manner to obtain an estimate of the 2D trajectory of human joints, .
We wish to recognize and localize contact points between the person and the manipulated object or the ground. This is a challenging task due to the large appearance variation of the contact events in the video. However, we demonstrate here that a good performance can be achieved by training a contact recognition CNN module from manually annotated contact data that combine both still images and videos harvested from the Internet. In detail, the contact recognizer operates on the 2D human joints predicted by Openpose. Given 2D joints at video frame , we crop fixed-size image patches around a set of joints of interest, which may be in contact with an object or ground. Based on the type of human joint, we feed each image patch to the corresponding CNN to predict whether the joint appearing in the patch is in contact or not. The output of the contact recognizer is a sequence encoding the contact states of human joint at video frame , i.e. if joint is in contact at frame and zero otherwise. Note that is the discretized version of the contact state trajectory presented in Sec. 4.
Our contact recognition CNNs are built by replacing the last layer of an ImageNet pre-trained Resnet model with a fully connected layer that has a binary output. We have trained separate models for five types of joints: hands, knees, foot soles, toes, and neck. To construct the training data, we collect still images of people manipulating tools using Google image search. We also collect short video clips of people manipulating tools from Youtube in order to also have non-contact examples. We run Openpose pose estimator on this data, crop patches around the 2D joints, and annotate the resulting dataset with contact states.
Estimating 2D object pose.
The objective is to estimate the 2D position of the manipulated object in each video frame. To achieve this, we build on instance segmentation obtained by Mask R-CNN . We train the network on shapes of object models from different viewpoints and apply the trained network on the test videos. The output masks and bounding boxes are used to estimate object end-points in each frame. The resulting 2D end-points are used as input to the trajectory optimizer. Details are given next.
In the case of barbell, hammer and scythe, we created a single 3D model for each tool, roughly approximating the shapes of the instances in the videos, and rendered it from multiple viewpoints using a perspective camera. For spade, we annotated 2D masks of various instances of the tool in thirteen different still images. The shapes of the rendered 3D models or 2D masks are used to train Mask R-CNN for instance segmentation of each tool. The training set is augmented by 2D geometric transformations (translation, rotation, scale) to handle the changes in shapes of tool instances in the videos. In addition, domain randomization [40, 61]
is applied to handle the variance of instances and changes in appearance in the videos caused by illumination: the geometrically transformed shape is filled with pixels from a random image (foreground) and pasted on another random image (background). We utilized random images from the MS COCO dataset for this purpose. We use a Mask R-CNN (implementation ) model pre-trained on the MS COCO dataset and re-train the head layers for each tool.
At test time, masks and bounding boxes obtained by the re-trained Mask R-CNN are used to estimate the coordinates of tool end-points. Proximity to coordinates of estimated wrist joints is used to select the mask and bounding box in case multiple candidates are available in the frame. To estimate the main axis of the object, a line is fitted through the output binary mask. The end-points are calculated as the intersection of the fitted line and boundaries of the bounding box. Using the combination of the output mask and the bounding box compensates for errors in the segmentation mask caused by occlusions. The relative orientation of the tool (i.e. the head vs. the handle of the tool) is determined by spatial location of end-points in the video frames as well as by their proximity to the estimated wrist joints.
In this section we present quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the reconstructed 3D person-object interactions. Since we recover not only human poses but also object poses and contact forces, evaluating our results is difficult due to the lack of ground truth forces and 3D object poses in standard 3D pose benchmarks such as . Consequently, we evaluate our motion and force estimation quantitatively on a recent Biomechanics video/MoCap dataset capturing challenging dynamic parkour motions . In addition, we report joint errors and show qualitative results on our newly collected dataset of videos depicting handtool manipulation actions.
6.1 Parkour dataset
This dataset contains videos capturing human subjects performing four typical parkour actions: two-hand jump, moving-up, pull-up and a single-hand hop. These are highly dynamic motions with rich contact interactions with the environment. The ground truth 3D motion and contact forces are captured with a Vicon motion capture system and several force plates. The 3D motion and forces are reconstructed with frame rates of Hz and Hz, respectively, whereas the RGB videos are captured in a relatively lower rate of Hz, making this dataset a challenge for computer vision algorithms due to motion blur.
We evaluate the estimated human 3D motion and contact forces. For evaluating the accuracy of the recovered 3D human poses, we follow the common approach of computing the mean per joint position error (MPJPE) of the estimated 3D pose with respect to the ground truth after rigid alignment . We evaluate the contact forces without any alignment: we express both the estimated and the ground truth 6D forces at the position of the contact aligned with the world coordinate frame provided in the dataset. We split the 6D forces into linear and moment components, and report the average Euclidean distance of the linear force and the moment with respect to the ground truth.
|L. Sole||R. Sole||L. Hand||R. Hand|
We report joint errors for different actions in Table 1 and compare results with the HMR 3D human pose estimator , which is used to warm-start our method. To make it a fair comparison, we use the same Openpose 2D joints as input. In addition, we evaluate the recent SMPLify  3D pose estimation method. Our method outperforms both baselines by more than 10mm on average on this challenging data.
Finally, Table 2 summarizes the force estimation results. To estimate the forces we assume a generic human physical model of mass kg for all the subjects. Despite the systematic error due to the generic human mass assumption, the results in Table 2 validate the quality of our force estimation at the soles and the hands during walking and jumping. We observe higher errors of the estimated moments at hands, which we believe is due to the challenging nature of the Parkour sequences where the entire person’s body is often supported by hands. In this case, the hand may exert significant force and torque to support the body, and a minor shift in the force direction may lead to significant errors.
6.2 Handtool dataset
In addition to the Parkour data captured in a controlled set-up, we would like to demonstrate generalization of our approach to the “in the wild” Internet instructional videos. For this purpose, we have collected a new dataset of object manipulation videos, which we refer to as the Handtool dataset.
Dataset and metrics.
The dataset contains videos of people manipulating four types of tools: barbell, hammer, scythe, and spade. For each type of tool, we chose among the top videos returned by YouTube five videos covering a range of actions. We then cropped short clips from each video showing the whole human body and the tool. For each video in the dataset, we have annotated the 3D positions of the person’s left and right shoulders, elbows, wrist, hips, knees, and ankles, for the first, the middle, and the last frame. We evaluate the accuracy of the recovered 3D human poses by computing their MPJPE after rigid alignment.
Quantitative evaluation of the recovered 3D poses is shown table 3. We compare our results to SMPLify  and HMR , which provide strong baselines. The results clearly demonstrate benefits of our approach, which models the physics of the person-object interaction. Qualitative examples are shown in Figure 2. The main failure modes are summarized in Figure 3. Please see the appendix for additional results.
We have proposed a visual recognition system that takes video frames together with a simple object model as input, and outputs a 3D scene with 3D human skeleton and object trajectories together with contact positions and forces. We have validated our approach on a recent MoCap dataset with ground truth contact forces. Finally, we have collected a new dataset of unconstrained instructional videos depicting people manipulating different objects and have demonstrated that our approach significantly improves 3D human pose estimation on this challenging data. Our work opens up the possibility of large-scale learning of human-object interactions from Internet instructional videos .
We warmly thank Bruno Watier (Université Paul Sabatier and LAAS-CNRS) and Galo Maldonado (ENSAM ParisTech) for setting up the Parkour dataset. This work was partly supported by the ERC grant LEAP (No. 336845), the H2020 Memmo project, CIFAR Learning in Machines&Brains program, and the European Regional Development Fund under the project IMPACT (reg. no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000468).
-  CMU Graphics Lab Motion Capture Database. http://mocap.cs.cmu.edu.
-  the pinocchio c++ library–a fast and flexible implementation of rigid body dynamics algorithms and their analytical derivatives.
-  W. Abdulla. https://github.com/matterport/Mask_RCNN, 2017.
-  S. Agarwal, K. Mierle, and Others. Ceres solver. http://ceres-solver.org.
-  I. Akhter and M. J. Black. Pose-conditioned joint angle limits for 3d human pose reconstruction. In CVPR, 2015.
-  J.-B. Alayrac, P. Bojanowski, N. Agrawal, I. Laptev, J. Sivic, and S. Lacoste-Julien. Unsupervised learning from narrated instruction videos. In CVPR, 2016.
-  M. Andriluka, L. Pishchulin, P. Gehler, and B. Schiele. 2d human pose estimation: New benchmark and state of the art analysis. In CVPR, 2014.
-  L. T. Biegler. Nonlinear programming: concepts, algorithms, and applications to chemical processes, volume 10, chapter 10. Siam, 2010.
-  F. Bogo, A. Kanazawa, C. Lassner, P. Gehler, J. Romero, and M. J. Black. Keep it smpl: Automatic estimation of 3d human pose and shape from a single image. In ECCV, 2016.
-  R. Boulic, N. M. Thalmann, and D. Thalmann. A global human walking model with real-time kinematic personification. The Visual Computer, 6(6):344–358, Nov 1990.
-  E. Brachmann, F. Michel, A. Krull, M. Ying Yang, S. Gumhold, et al. Uncertainty-driven 6d pose estimation of objects and scenes from a single rgb image. In CVPR, 2016.
M. A. Brubaker, D. J. Fleet, and A. Hertzmann.
Physics-based person tracking using simplified lower-body dynamics.
2007 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 1–8. IEEE, 2007.
-  M. A. Brubaker, L. Sigal, and D. J. Fleet. Estimating contact dynamics. In 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, pages 2389–2396. IEEE, 2009.
-  Z. Cao, T. Simon, S.-E. Wei, and Y. Sheikh. Realtime multi-person 2d pose estimation using part affinity fields. In CVPR, 2017.
-  J. Carpentier and N. Mansard. Analytical derivatives of rigid body dynamics algorithms. In Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS 2018), 2018.
-  J. Carpentier and N. Mansard. Multi-contact locomotion of legged robots. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 2018.
-  J. Carpentier, F. Valenza, N. Mansard, et al. Pinocchio: fast forward and inverse dynamics for poly-articulated systems. https://stack-of-tasks.github.io/pinocchio, 2015–2017.
-  C.-H. Chen and D. Ramanan. 3d human pose estimation= 2d pose estimation+ matching. In CVPR, 2017.
-  V. Delaitre, J. Sivic, and I. Laptev. Learning person-object interactions for action recognition in still images. In NIPS, 2011.
-  M. Diehl, H. Bock, H. Diedam, and P.-B. Wieber. Fast Direct Multiple Shooting Algorithms for Optimal Robot Control. In Fast Motions in Biomechanics and Robotics. 2006.
-  A. Doumanoglou, R. Kouskouridas, S. Malassiotis, and T.-K. Kim. 6d object detection and next-best-view prediction in the crowd. In CVPR, 2016.
-  R. Featherstone. Rigid body dynamics algorithms. Springer, 2008.
-  D. F. Fouhey, V. Delaitre, A. Gupta, A. A. Efros, I. Laptev, and J. Sivic. People watching: Human actions as a cue for single view geometry. IJCV, 110(3):259–274, 2014.
-  J. Gall, B. Rosenhahn, T. Brox, and H.-P. Seidel. Optimization and filtering for human motion capture. IJCV, 87(1-2):75, 2010.
-  S. Gammeter, A. Ess, T. Jäggli, K. Schindler, B. Leibe, and L. Van Gool. Articulated multi-body tracking under egomotion. In ECCV, 2008.
-  J. C. Gower. Generalized procrustes analysis. Psychometrika, 40(1):33–51, 1975.
-  A. Grabner, P. M. Roth, and V. Lepetit. 3D Pose Estimation and 3D Model Retrieval for Objects in the Wild. In CVPR, 2018.
-  A. Gupta, A. Kembhavi, and L. S. Davis. Observing human-object interactions: Using spatial and functional compatibility for recognition. PAMI, 31(10):1775–1789, 2009.
-  K. He, G. Gkioxari, P. Dollár, and R. B. Girshick. Mask R-CNN. CoRR, abs/1703.06870, 2017.
-  K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun. Deep residual learning for image recognition. In CVPR, 2016.
-  A. Herdt, N. Perrin, and P.-B. Wieber. Walking without thinking about it. In International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010.
-  S. Hinterstoisser, V. Lepetit, N. Rajkumar, and K. Konolige. Going further with point pair features. In ECCV, 2016.
-  E. Insafutdinov, L. Pishchulin, B. Andres, M. Andriluka, and B. Schiele. Deepercut: A deeper, stronger, and faster multi-person pose estimation model. In ECCV, 2016.
-  C. Ionescu, D. Papava, V. Olaru, and C. Sminchisescu. Human3.6m: Large scale datasets and predictive methods for 3d human sensing in natural environments. PAMI, 36(7):1325–1339, jul 2014.
-  Y. Jiang, H. Koppula, and A. Saxena. Hallucinated humans as the hidden context for labeling 3d scenes. In CVPR, 2013.
-  A. Kanazawa, M. J. Black, D. W. Jacobs, and J. Malik. End-to-end recovery of human shape and pose. In CVPR, 2018.
-  J. Kuffner, K. Nishiwaki, S. Kagami, M. Inaba, and H. Inoue. Motion planning for humanoid robots. In Robotics Research. The Eleventh International Symposium, 2005.
-  Y. Li, G. Wang, X. Ji, Y. Xiang, and D. Fox. DeepIM: Deep Iterative Matching for 6D Pose Estimation. In ECCV, 2018.
-  T. Lin, M. Maire, S. J. Belongie, L. D. Bourdev, R. B. Girshick, J. Hays, P. Perona, D. Ramanan, P. Dollár, and C. L. Zitnick. Microsoft COCO: common objects in context. CoRR, abs/1405.0312, 2014.
-  V. Loing, R. Marlet, and M. Aubry. Virtual training for a real application: Accurate object-robot relative localization without calibration. IJCV, Jun 2018.
-  M. Loper, N. Mahmood, J. Romero, G. Pons-Moll, and M. J. Black. Smpl: A skinned multi-person linear model. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 34(6):248, 2015.
-  M. M. Loper, N. Mahmood, and M. J. Black. MoSh: Motion and shape capture from sparse markers. ACM Transactions on Graphics, (Proc. SIGGRAPH Asia), 33(6):220:1–220:13, Nov. 2014.
-  G. Maldonado, F. Bailly, P. Souères, and B. Watier. Angular momentum regulation strategies for highly dynamic landing in Parkour. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 20(sup1):123–124, 2017.
-  J. Malmaud, J. Huang, V. Rathod, N. Johnston, A. Rabinovich, and K. Murphy. What’s cookin’? interpreting cooking videos using text, speech and vision. arXiv preprint arXiv:1503.01558, 2015.
-  J. Martinez, R. Hossain, J. Romero, and J. J. Little. A simple yet effective baseline for 3d human pose estimation. In ICCV, 2017.
-  I. Mordatch, E. Todorov, and Z. Popović. Discovery of complex behaviors through contact-invariant optimization. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 31(4):43, 2012.
-  F. Moreno-Noguer. 3d human pose estimation from a single image via distance matrix regression. In CVPR, 2017.
-  A. Newell, Z. Huang, and J. Deng. Associative embedding: End-to-end learning for joint detection and grouping. In NIPS, 2017.
-  A. Newell, K. Yang, and J. Deng. Stacked hourglass networks for human pose estimation. In ECCV, 2016.
-  M. Oberweger, M. Rad, and V. Lepetit. Making Deep Heatmaps Robust to Partial Occlusions for 3D Object Pose Estimation. In ECCV, 2018.
-  G. Pavlakos, X. Zhou, K. G. Derpanis, and K. Daniilidis. Coarse-to-fine volumetric prediction for single-image 3d human pose. In CVPR, 2017.
-  M. Posa, C. Cantu, and R. Tedrake. A direct method for trajectory optimization of rigid bodies through contact. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 33(1):69–81, 2014.
-  A. Prest, V. Ferrari, and C. Schmid. Explicit modeling of human-object interactions in realistic videos. PAMI, 35(4):835–848, 2013.
-  M. Rad and V. Lepetit. Bb8: A scalable, accurate, robust to partial occlusion method for predicting the 3d poses of challenging objects without using depth. In ICCV, 2017.
-  M. Rad, M. Oberweger, and V. Lepetit. Feature Mapping for Learning Fast and Accurate 3D Pose Inference from Synthetic Images. In CVPR, 2018.
-  G. Schultz and K. Mombaur. Modeling and optimal control of human-like running. IEEE/ASME Transactions on mechatronics, 15(5):783–792, 2010.
-  H. Sidenbladh, M. J. Black, and D. J. Fleet. Stochastic tracking of 3d human figures using 2d image motion. In ECCV, 2000.
-  Y. Tassa, T. Erez, and E. Todorov. Synthesis and stabilization of complex behaviors through online trajectory optimization. In IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2012.
-  A. Tejani, D. Tang, R. Kouskouridas, and T.-K. Kim. Latent-class hough forests for 3d object detection and pose estimation. In ECCV, 2014.
-  B. Tekin, A. Rozantsev, V. Lepetit, and P. Fua. Direct prediction of 3d body poses from motion compensated sequences. In CVPR, 2016.
-  J. Tobin, R. Fong, A. Ray, J. Schneider, W. Zaremba, and P. Abbeel. Domain randomization for transferring deep neural networks from simulation to the real world. CoRR, abs/1703.06907, 2017.
-  S. Tonneau, A. Del Prete, J. Pettré, C. Park, D. Manocha, and N. Mansard. An Efficient Acyclic Contact Planner for Multiped Robots. IEEE Transactions on Robotics (TRO), 2018.
-  B. Triggs, P. F. McLauchlan, R. I. Hartley, and A. W. Fitzgibbon. Bundle adjustment—a modern synthesis. In International workshop on vision algorithms, 1999.
-  X. Wei and J. Chai. Videomocap: Modeling physically realistic human motion from monocular video sequences. ACM Trans. Graph., 29(4):42:1–42:10, July 2010.
-  E. R. Westervelt, J. W. Grizzle, and D. E. Koditschek. Hybrid zero dynamics of planar biped walkers. 2003.
-  A. W. Winkler, C. D. Bellicoso, M. Hutter, and J. Buchli. Gait and trajectory optimization for legged systems through phase-based end-effector parameterization. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 3(3):1560–1567, 2018.
-  Y. Xiang, T. Schmidt, V. Narayanan, and D. Fox. Posecnn: A convolutional neural network for 6d object pose estimation in cluttered scenes. CoRR, abs/1711.00199, 2017.
-  B. Yao and L. Fei-Fei. Recognizing human-object interactions in still images by modeling the mutual context of objects and human poses. PAMI, 34(9):1691–1703, 2012.
-  X. Zhou, M. Zhu, S. Leonardos, K. G. Derpanis, and K. Daniilidis. Sparseness meets deepness: 3d human pose estimation from monocular video. In CVPR, 2016.