EnsembleFollower: A Hybrid Car-Following Framework Based On Reinforcement Learning and Hierarchical Planning

by   Xu Han, et al.

Car-following models have made significant contributions to our understanding of longitudinal driving behavior. However, they often exhibit limited accuracy and flexibility, as they cannot fully capture the complexity inherent in car-following processes, or may falter in unseen scenarios due to their reliance on confined driving skills present in training data. It is worth noting that each car-following model possesses its own strengths and weaknesses depending on specific driving scenarios. Therefore, we propose EnsembleFollower, a hierarchical planning framework for achieving advanced human-like car-following. The EnsembleFollower framework involves a high-level Reinforcement Learning-based agent responsible for judiciously managing multiple low-level car-following models according to the current state, either by selecting an appropriate low-level model to perform an action or by allocating different weights across all low-level components. Moreover, we propose a jerk-constrained kinematic model for more convincing car-following simulations. We evaluate the proposed method based on real-world driving data from the HighD dataset. The experimental results illustrate that EnsembleFollower yields improved accuracy of human-like behavior and achieves effectiveness in combining hybrid models, demonstrating that our proposed framework can handle diverse car-following conditions by leveraging the strengths of various low-level models.


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