End-to-End Intelligent Framework for Rockfall Detection

by   Thanasis Zoumpekas, et al.

Rockfall detection is a crucial procedure in the field of geology, which helps to reduce the associated risks. Currently, geologists identify rockfall events almost manually utilizing point cloud and imagery data obtained from different caption devices such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner or digital cameras. Multi-temporal comparison of the point clouds obtained with these techniques requires a tedious visual inspection to identify rockfall events which implies inaccuracies that depend on several factors such as human expertise and the sensibility of the sensors. This paper addresses this issue and provides an intelligent framework for rockfall event detection for any individual working in the intersection of the geology domain and decision support systems. The development of such an analysis framework poses significant research challenges and justifies intensive experimental analysis. In particular, we propose an intelligent system that utilizes multiple machine learning algorithms to detect rockfall clusters of point cloud data. Due to the extremely imbalanced nature of the problem, a plethora of state-of-the-art resampling techniques accompanied by multiple models and feature selection procedures are being investigated. Various machine learning pipeline combinations have been benchmarked and compared applying well-known metrics to be incorporated into our system. Specifically, we developed statistical and machine learning techniques and applied them to analyze point cloud data extracted from Terrestrial Laser Scanner in two distinct case studies, involving different geological contexts: the basaltic cliff of Castellfollit de la Roca and the conglomerate Montserrat Massif, both located in Spain. Our experimental data suggest that some of the above-mentioned machine learning pipelines can be utilized to detect rockfall incidents on mountain walls, with experimentally proven accuracy.


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