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Effect of Gameplay Uncertainty, Display Type, and Age on Virtual Reality Exergames

by   Wenge Xu, et al.

Uncertainty is widely acknowledged as an engaging gameplay element but rarely used in exergames. In this research, we explore the role of uncertainty in exergames and introduce three uncertain elements (false-attacks, misses, and critical hits) to an exergame. We conducted a study under two conditions (uncertain and certain), with two display types (virtual reality and large display) and across young and middle-aged adults to measure their effect on game performance, experience, and exertion. Results show that (1) our designed uncertain elements are instrumental in increasing exertion levels; (2) when playing a motion-based first-person perspective exergame, virtual reality can improve performance, while maintaining the same motion sickness level as a large display; and (3) exergames for middle-aged adults should be designed with age-related declines in mind, similar to designing for elderly adults. We also framed two design guidelines for exergames that have similar features to the game used in this research.


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